Intuition in Philosophy I. [ +VIDEO ] - We Shoot From The Hip
How come, that over the centuries, the key topic of philosophy has been the nature of intuition and its source, the nature of mind?
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Intuition is a paramount topic in philosophy, still, it is like a unicorn that only the brightest philosophers can and dare to come close to. This is because one can only place the Basiliscus on the top of a castle if we have a good basis, strong walls, and a nice roof that stands firm. Today, we have the internet with all the philosophical ideas in the world, along with ebooks, so philosophers can prepare their logic properly in order to dive into the topic of philosophy.
We can say that intuition is like a cherry on a cake: we cannot have it unless we bake a tasty cake beforehand. Intuition cannot be understood before we are clear about the philosophy of mind. To bake the cake, however, several criteria must be fulfilled. We must have the right mood to bake it, great ingredients shall be available, we shall remember how to do it, be aware of the measurements and time, have the oven at the right temperature, and more. Still, the process is full of gut feelings, like selecting the right measurements and intuiting outcomes of other actions. Still, the process is full of gut feelings, such as choosing the right measurements and intuiting the outcomes of certain actions.
Almost anything we do involves a lesser or higher degree of intuition. Thus, every process and everything in our life can be consciously turned into a practice of developing our intuition. The cherry on top of the cake does not appear as a sudden miraculous gift, but we earn it with hard "work," and enthusiastic practice. Thus, it „just comes” naturally over time. In this article series, we not only discuss the philosophy of intuition in an intellectual way, but we also provide experiential tools to improve it.
The two key factors of (professional) intuition
Understanding intuition or professional intuition requires grasping two essential factors.
Firstly, we need to grasp the source of intuition, which lies in the nature of the mind. The mind possesses various qualities, and intuition is the key amongst them.
In exploring the nature of the mind, philosophers have often faced its relative and absolute aspects. The relative aspect, known as relative consciousness, pertains to the mind's capacity to experience emotions, perceive information, and process it. On the other hand, the absolute aspect refers to the mind's fundamental space-like nature that transcends specific perceptions or experiences.
To truly grasp the nature of mind, it is essential to consider both the relative consciousness and absolute aspect. The relative aspect enables us to perceive the external world and thus, to make sense of our experiences. However, it is inherently bound and influenced by the specific conditions under which we perceive, as well as the mental attitude of the perceiver.
Conversely, the absolute aspect of the mind embodies its fundamental nature, untouched by particular conditions, emotions, logic, experiences, specific conditions or circumstances. This aspect is often referred to as pure awareness or the nature of mind. The absolute aspect of mind represents the ultimate reality that is the wellspring of all perceptions and experiences. This is like a space-like awareness, in which all phenomena appear and play around. The mind’s absolute aspect is the radience of the mirror, and the consciousness that deals with the ever-changing pictures is the realtive-, or everyday consciousness.
Therefore, it is imperative to recognize that the relative consciousness and the absolute aspect of mind are interconnected facets, like two sides of the same coin. The relative aspect provides a framework for comprehending the world, while the absolute aspect serves as the bedrock of this activity. As we delve into analyzing the nature of the mind, we must recognize and explore the intricate interaction between these aspects, as they shape our perception of reality, and thus, our reality as well.
Furthermore, the absolute aspect can be considered as a multidimensional (at least a four-dimensional) quality in which an infinite number of three-dimensional relative consciousnesses and space-time-relative worlds continuously manifest.
Consequently, the relative reality depends on the absolute realm, which includes and serves as a source of the relative. The relative reality is like as a child that relies on their mother or a wave that relies on the depth of the ocean. Intuition, rooted in a deeper connection with the absolute, can manifest itself in relative terms such as thought patterns, names, ideas, and phrases. These relative aspect could not emerge without the absolute, in which they appear.
Moreover, when the relative logical consciousness seeks to simplify complexity or obtain seemingly unattainable information, it can draw upon the space-like expansiveness of the absolute mind, much like tapping into a boundless energy-reservoir of the Earth’s magneto-electric field (the magnetopausa).
Space is limitless information, that can be accessed by intuition.
Why is critical thinking the main criteria in examining our mind and the nature of reality?
The highest philosophy of the globe can only unfold in periods of ideological freedom. Philosophy, the "love of wisdom" (from Greek: φιλοσοφία, philosophia), is about wisdom, which is about truth, the nature of reality. Truth can be seen from three perspectives: pure belief, pure knowledge, or the perspective of knowledge combined with belief. Let us clarify these three.
1) Belief means anything we believe in, ideologies, or ideas. 2) Knowledge can mean any intellectual information we gain with our relative consciousness, especially science. 3) On the other hand wisdom means a type of intuition-absorbed absolute realization that transcends everyday knowledge.
Believing without knowledge or wisdom carries the risk of leading astray, yet it engenders swift engagement towards the target of the belief. Belief, at its core, is a heartfelt idealism that guides us, even in a dark room, towards either a positive or negative direction. In contrary, the everyday level knowledge by itself has the danger that it may not be full or correct, yet it provides us intellectual freedom. The absolute knowledge of intuition at the same time provides razor-sharp gudance without belief, thoughts of feelings. We do not need to think, nor to believe, we just know what is the right direction.
Therefore, as relative knowledge can never be full – due to the enormous number of effecting factors - we shall test relative information. As King Leonidas expressed it in the movie „300” about the persian „immortals”: „We shall put their name to the test!” The mindset of testing information and knowledge is a kind of realist skepticism ("I only believe it if I see it, but until then, I doubt its validity”) combined with experimentalism/pragmatism ("I only believe it if I tested it and also science tells the same”) with also with a secondary expectation of altruistic instrumentalism („the fantastic things we do or ideas we form must be useful for as many people as possible”). This positively critical mindset may as well carry the consequentialist approach (whatever we do has an effect, and we should consider them to produce positive effects) while knowing that everything happens in the mind as a dream-like flux of impressions that formulates in space-time (absolute idealism or rather panpsychism). So, we question the information, test it, see if it benefits others and think about the responsibility of our decision, while knowing that it's all a game of our relative consciousness. This is called critical thinking.
Knowledge combined with belief means that one questions, learns, and tests a certain concept or belief to its ashes. When no question is left, and one feels that from this point on, if any unexpected details may arise, nothing can collapse, that is the time when one believes that it is a good system of thinking. Thus, the further information one receives with a basic positive mindset of acceptance. This speeds up further development and naturally unfolds the utilitarian aspects and methods of helping others.
All philosophical schools and religions can be classified into these three approaches: 1) faith-based (religion ot theory), 2) thinking-based (science), 3) critically tested, thinking-based trust/faith (conviction), that unifies the prior two approaches. The third method is the most advanced.
Applying the governing- or ruling tool of mandatory-, forced or unchangeable belief (dogma) prohibits the freedom of knowledge, thus, it limits knowledge. While dogmatic belief and the moralistic suppression of unrestricted information access poses the greatest threat to civilization, the pillars of free speech, critical thinking, freedom of thought, and scientific pursuit stand as its greatest benefactors.
In discussing the philosophy of the world, it's important to acknowledge that high philosophy can only thrive in an environment of ideological freedom. This includes physical freedom, the freedom to think, question the dominant ideology, and speak without defined rules and dogmas, all of which begin with religious freedom. Secularity is a crucial criterion that was not always available throughout history, and thus we must value it greatly.
Exploring the Philosophical Landscape From East to West, Religion to Secularism, by Critical Thinking
In the first part of this chapter let us embark on a captivating journey, akin to a thought-provoking exploration crafted in the style of Bertrand Russell, condensed yet illuminating. Through this lens that provides condensed light, it becomes evident that the realms of Eastern and Western philosophy are interwoven, inseparable, and merit unified consideration. While individuals well-versed in philosophical studies may find this historical section familiar, it serves as an enlightening overview and foundation for the majority of our kind readers. It grants them the confidence to form their own opinions regarding prominent philosophers and their profound intellectual legacies. Thus, our kind readers will gain a panoramic glimpse of philosophy, surveying the interesting parts of its vast landscape from a bird's-eye perspective.
If, dear reader, you happen to be a philosopher well-acquainted with both Eastern and Western schools of thought, you may opt to skip ahead to the second part of this chapter. Here, we shift our attention from the individual philosophers to the dynamic interplay of ideas within specific philosophical domains, topics. This second part delves into the captivating realm of perspectives, exploring the rich tapestry of voices and their unique contributions to the discourse surrounding particular topics. It's a fascinating journey into the world of ever-evolving dialogue of philosophical thought.
At the same time, the initial two sections of this chapter meticulously and multifacetedly lay the groundwork for the third part, thus, we will effortlessly acquaint ourselves with the "Unified Theory of Mind & Consciousness."
Additionally, we have to consider, that philosophy has evolved over the centuries, is mostly rooted in religious philosophies or had to stand ground within a religious context. Therefore, we need to explore briefly what people around the world have believed in. This is included in the first two parts of this three-part discussion about intuition in philosophy. Thus, we also embark on an exhilarating exploration of religious philosophies, immersing ourselves in the rich tapestry of Christian, Hindu, Buddhist, and the Non-Theistic perspective (also known as Atheism). Adopting a secular standpoint, our aim is to scrutinize these philosophical traditions, discern their respective teachings, and distill their practical value for our everyday existence. As we step through the views of „every way leads to the same direction” and „everyone believes in the same God” that are based on pure ignorance with critical analysis, we will see how different the values and goals of different religions are. In this enlightening expedition, we embark on an analytical journey to unveil profound insights and practical wisdom that can truly enrich our lives. By delving into the historical roots and connotations of secular philosophy, we develop a deeper understanding of its interconnectedness with religion. We come to recognize the profound influence that religion exerts on philosophical discourse, shaping the ideas and boundaries within which philosophers express themselves.
The word "religion" comes from the Latin words "re" (again) and "legare" (unite), which means to reunite with the truth and understand the meaning of life. Re-legare is a synonym for a belief or conviction in a worldview. But what kind of truth is it that you can fall out of, and now we have to get back to its essence again along the lines of the re-legare concept? We will leave this discussion for later.
However, next to re-legare, there are many worldviews, not only those officially recognized as religions. Therefore, we may say that anything people consider important as an everyday view is a kind of religion, including Atheism and quantum science. Whether it involves gods or not, any view people have about the ways of understanding "truth," avoiding pain, and acquiring happiness is a kind of conviction, belief or religion. The relative consciousness of each individual embarks on a unique path, guided by their convictions and beliefs. This belief serves as the compass that steers our journey and shapes our choices.
To understand intuition, the cherry on the cake of philosophical perspective, we need to examine the viewpoints of different beliefs, the cake itself. Thus, we summarize the most important thought trends and briefly discuss the thinking of the leaders who voiced them. From this, we will conclude that whatever people have believed throughout the millennia, there exists an underlying „absolute truth" beneath them. All cakes that can be called original are made from grain (flour). Fire (heat), water (moisture) and other factors are needed to produce the grain and then to make the cake. We are not interested in the cake itself, but in the basic factors that make any type of cake possible.
To use another analogy, it is like understanding the unchanging depth of the ocean beneath the changing waves. While we analyze and critically examine the ever-shifting waves of relative perspectives, our ultimate aim and interest remains anchored in understanding the profound depths of the ocean. The source of the waves are the ocean itself, therefore, the ocean has higher importance than the waves.
It is through the intellectual and experiential exploration of these depths that intuition, the focal point of this book, flourishes and unfolds.
I. Historical Background of Philosophy – The Context that Defines the Contents
To gain a profound understanding, we embark on a journey through the history of philosophy, beginning with the earliest known records of human civilization—the Sumerian legacy.
Sumerians Described It All, Zarathustra Spead It To All Directions
The ancient societies of Mesopotamia, including the Ancient Persian (present-day Iranian), with their origins dating back around 6-7,000 years. It gave rise to the vibrant culture centered in Babylon, where philosophy and the arts thrived. These civilizations held beliefs in certain beings that were part of their history, whose stories were recorded on ancient Sumerian clay tablets, dating back approximately 5,000 years.
The prominent figure of these beings was Anu, a celestial being who dispatched his two sons, Enki and Enlil, to Earth for the purpose of gold mining. The two brothers became embroiled in conflict, with Enki ultimately engaging in genetic manipulation to transform the homo erectus into the weaker but more skilful and clever homo sapiens, intending to employ them as laborers in the mines. Enlil, however, disapproved of his half-brother's ”godlike” actions, as it is a universal law that different civilizations should not interfere with the natural development of another, particularly for their own gain. Their powerful negotiations resulted in significant battles.
The gene-manipulation, the "creation" itself happened in a Mezopotamian city (today Kuwait) called E-din, which some researchers posit as the same place referred to as Eden in the Bible. The Sumerian clay tablets elaborate in details on the process of three-parent-embryo (two-egg based) gene modification across several pages, while the Bible briefly mentions it in a few referring sentences.
As humanity evolved and multiplied, different tendencies emerged in their beliefs. Some individuals, particularly the Sumerians, chose to worship Enki (the one who literally enjoyed human sacrafice), while others aligned themselves with Enlil (who preferred to cultivate good deeds and did not cultivate his half-brother’s godlike creationist activities). However, as the population grew, both Enki and Enlil placed specially genetically modified individuals at the head of the people, whom they appointed as proxy leaders. Their task was to rule over humanity in the name of Enki or Enlil, the non-earthly beings considered as being their gods. This phenomenon has been proposed as an explanation by several researchers as the reason for the appearance of coneheaded leaders appearing in various civilizations on Earth (Mesopotamia, Peruvian Inca, Egyptian, German, Caucasian/Hun, Chinese, etc.).
Both Enki and Enlil imparted a portion of their knowledge to these proxy leaders. This knowledge encompassed various aspects, including the understanding of waves, frequencies, astrology, architecture, farming and the intricate workings of consciousness. Of notable importance was the role of intuition, which found its expression in these cultures through the representation of the pineal gland, often symbolized by a pine cone. These concepts were further elucidated through symbolic depictions like the all-seeing eye, as exemplified by the Eye of Horus.
In the 14th century BC at the same place in Mezopotamia, Zarathustra (-1000 BC) (or Zoroaster) presented his monotheistic belief of Zoroastrianism, by revitalizing the clay-tablet based old stories, as a religion. He worshipped Anu, whom he called Ahura Mazda, and his two sons were called Mehr/Mithra (Enlil) and the "child of the waters" Apam Napat (Enki), spelled the same in the Vedas. The main teaching of Zoroaster was causality: if you think positively, speak kind words and do good, after a while these good subconscious seeds will mature, and according to the law of energy-conservation and the force-counterforce law, we will experience the same from others. Hindus and Buddhists call this phenomenon, karma. Zoroaster also held the opinion, that we shall take responsibility for our lives – as our future is only in our hands –, and he also promoted the idea, that we should do good consciously with others, with a "world-perfecter" attitude, which in Buddhism is referred to as the „bodhisattva” attitude.
It was one of the major events of the Mezopotamian culture, that in 582 BC, King Nebuchadnezzar II of Babylon laid siege to Jerusalem, resulting in the captivity of numerous Jews for approximately fifty years. It was during this period in Babylon that they crafted their sacred text, the Torah, incorporating various knowledge and regulations derived from the Babylonian libraries, which originated from and was in favour of Enki.
The Sumerian Influence: Exploring Egypt's Divided Legacy and the Aten Era
The two regions of Egypt, Upper- and Lower Egypt can be attributed as the properties of the two prominent sons mentioned in the Sumerian Clay tablets, Enki and Enlil. Hence, we witness an ongoing conflict between Enlilite Lower Egypt and Enkiite Upper Egypt. It is noteworthy that the Jewish slaves who B.C. Around 1750, they suffered captivity in Lower Egypt, near the Nile Delta, for roughly three or four centuries (depending on the source), as slaves they felt closer to the opposite Egyptian side and predominantly aligned themselves with the teachings of Enki.
Fascinatingly, the Egyptian deities themselves find their origins in the Sumerian pantheon, albeit with different appellations. Analogous to the Hindu tradition, the people of ancient Upper Egypt possessed the liberty to worship multiple gods, each fulfilling distinct roles. Within the pantheon of Egyptian gods upheld by the Theban Priesthood, the eminent figure was Amun, intricately associated with Enlil, while Aten was Enki’s Egyptian name.
In a period reminiscent of Zoroaster's epoch, a notable pharaoh of Upper Egypt emerged—Akhenaten. Formerly known as Amenhotep IV, signifying "Amun is satisfied," he undertook a profound transformation, adopting the name Akhenaten, which conveys the notion of being "Effective for the Aten." Enlil's Egyptian name was Amun, Enki's Egyptian name was Aten. This name change meant that after Enlil died, Enki was succeeded by the pharaoh. Determined and resolute, he guided his people through a transition from polytheism to monotheism.The deity Sobek (Aten), introduced by Akhenaten, exhibited a bipedal manifestation, its head evoking the head of an enormous crocodile. In a self-expressing statue, it becomes evident that the height of the seated Sobek corresponded to the stature of the standing Akhenaten.
The ruling power of Egyptian society during this Aten-era discouraged the pursuit of questioning, affording little room for doubt or inquiry. Thus, the people revolted, and the limiting monotheist doctrine of Atenism proved to be transient, ceasing to endure beyond the lifespan of Akhenaten.
Exploring the Cosmic Path: Hinduism's Journey to Transcendent Consciousness
Hinduism/Brahmanism, with its multi-theistic approach, emerged during the first period around 1750 BC. It gave rise to the Vedic texts and the Upanishads, composed by Vyasa around the 7th-6th century BC and expanding until the 1st century CE. These texts delved into the exploration of attaining a transcendent „superhuman” consciousness.
Within the Hindu framework, various schools emerged, but the dominant stream always centered around the trinity known as the Trimurti. Just like the Christian concept of the Holy Trinity, the Trimurti consisted of the father figure Brahman (Anu in sumerian), and his two sons—the creator Vishnu (akin to Enlil) and the destroyer Shiva (resembling Enki). In different branches of Hinduism, one of the two sons takes precedence. In Vaishnavism, it is Vishnu; in Shaivism, it is Shiva/Rudra, and in Shaktism, it is Shakti—the feminine energy essence of Shiva. In shaktism, the inner essence of feminine energies manifests as intuition, transcending any particular essence by being essence-less.
Regardless of what holds significance to individuals, the underlying players remain the same that we get to know from the Sumerian culture. Brahman represents the essence of all things—the ultimate cosmic reality from which manifestations arise, symbolized through the playful dance of Vishnu. Due to its immanence, whatever emerges eventually dissolves or meets destruction, represented by Shiva. Parallely, and eventually, all appearances and disappearances, every existence and dissolvement, take place within Brahman, the cosmic reality.
Hindus strive to master appearance (creation) and disappearance (destruction) and finally develop the individual's Ātman, the highest-, godly self with superhuman abilities. This transformative odyssey unfolds through a series of developmental stages, culminating in the attainment of the transcendent state of Brahma's consciousness.
Central to this teaching is the concept of karma, the principle of causality, emphasizing that the quality of our lives is influenced by our actions. Hindus seek the assistance of deities when needed: praying to unified gods for a spouse, turning to the god of war during times of conflict, and seeking blessings from the deity of wealth for prosperity.
The infusion of Hindu culture into the Indian society nurtured a climate of heightened critical thinking, thus elevating the overall intellectual capacity. This intellectual enrichment catalyzed economic growth and flourishing trade, also creating a fertile ground for the emergence of Gautama Siddhartha’s profound teachings. Nevertheless, while Hindu yogis aimed to attain several kinds of superhuman capabilities, Gautama focused on the nature of mind and reality.
Gautama's teachings upgraded the ancient knowledge
During the 6th-5th century BC, in Chinese cultures, there were two influential figures who provided valuable guidance: Lao Tse/Tsu/Zi (c. -500 BC) and Confucius (-479 BC). This period also witnessed a significant cultural development in Asia when the Shakyamuni Buddha (-480 BC), also known as the Buddha of our era, attained enlightenment in Bodh-Gaya. The Shakyamuni Buddha hailed from the kingdom of the Shakyas/Schitas, located in Mid-South Nepal. His awakening marked him as the fourth individual in our galaxy to achieve complete enlightenment. This milestone brought about profound transformation in Asian culture.
After his enlightenment, Gautama Siddhartha hesitaded to provide teachings as he considered, that these teachings would be too simplistic for a complicated human brain that is full with concepts, thoughts, habits and unwanted emotions. Teaching about space-nature of mind is too simple for a complicated consciousness. However, as the story goes, Indra, the foremost deity in Hinduism, approached him with utmost humility, imploring him to share his wisdom for the benefit of the few who possessed the capacity to grasp it. Yielding to Indra's request, Gautama agreed, thus commencing the spread of Buddhism alongside Hinduism. Consequently, the Hindu deities, while retaining their existing responsibilities, also assumed a Buddhist role. This young man, adorned with curly blond hair and captivating blue eyes (as presented by Gandhara statues), realized that the concept of an independently existing self, or ego, is merely a fleeting thought—an illusory construct—and that reality itself is like a dream. Nonetheless, in the pursuit of enhancing this reality, his teachings initially revolved around the interplay of cause and effect. Subsequently, he thought about compassion and wisdom. Only when his students’ brain attained a state of tranquility and simplicity did he reveal the space-like nature of mind and forms that appear in our reality.
As the Hindu path unfolded, its end-result entailed the acquisition of various extraordinary capabilities, or the harmonious alignment of the highest self with the universal order upheld by the Hindu deities. In contrast, the ultimate goal of the Buddhist path revolved around the realization of the innately omniscient potential of consciousness, wherein the fabric of what we usually call reality revealed itself as a beguiling illusion. This attainment was actualized by letting go all conceptual constructs, including the notion of „I”, the idea of „you”, the roles ascribed to deities, the vast expanse of the cosmos, the intricate web of „who does what”, or any thoughts and energies that may emerge within consciousness. Instead, the focus shifted towards embracing the unlimited and intuitive nature of mind, wherein its unrestricted playfulness that we call reality, unfolded.
His teachings on reaching a mental state of happiness, avoiding anxiety, ethics, understanding phenomena, perceptions, and the nature of consciousness and the non-dual or quantum-like nature of mind and existence were recorded in the Sutras and Tantras, which contain approximately 84,000 teachings in 108 books. In these, Gautama offered suggestions – „if you do this, the result will be this, if you do that the result will be that” - rather than commandments and encouraged followers to use their own brains, ask questions, and test out his teachings for themselves. Buddhism, therefore, may not be suitable for those who prefer to be commanded what to do.
After he thought for ca. 40 years, in his death bad he said: „I gave you everything and did not keep a single teaching in closed hands” and „Don’t believe anything just because an enlightened person said that; use your own brains, ask questions and test it out yourself; and if ever science proves me wrong, believe science”.
Greek philosophers brought clarity to the West for the first time
Western culture was greatly inspired and enriched by the teachings of Gautama and Zoroastrianism, which spread to ancient Greece and inspired Greek philosophers.
Anaximander (-546 BC) explained how all the worlds form from the elements of air, earth, water, and fire on the basis of an eternal, unlimited 'aperion.' His pupil Pythagoras (-597 BC) discussed the "transmigration of souls," in other words reincarnation, which says that souls are immortal. He was the one who coined the term philosophy, meaning "love of wisdom." Xenophanes (-475 BC), on the other hand, espoused the notion that every community fabricates gods in their own image and likeness, reflecting their particular form and ideology. Consequently, reaching a shared understanding of the 'truth' becomes an impossible task. Henceforth, Western skepticism emerged, underscoring the essence-less nature of all phenomena, be it external objects, our corporeal existence, thoughts, or emotions. Drawing inspiration from Zoroaster, Heraclitus (-475 BC) expounded that everything is changing and is in constant flux. Collectively, these ideas converge upon a fundamental realization: irrespective of the deities we believe in, the ultimate truth is that everything appears as a causal chain of free play in the space-nature ('aperion') of reality. Despite the ebb and flow of relative waves, the absolute depth of the ocean remains steadfast.
In the 5th century CE Greece, Parmenides (-460 BC) contemplated the concept of "appearance" and emphasized the deceitful nature of our senses. He asserted that ultimately, only the mind exists as an unchanging, timeless void—a space he referred to as "aether." Anaxagoras (-428 BC) introduced the notion that the consciousness (nous), which he interpreted as possessing a spatial essence, persists and enters bodies. This aligns closely with Buddhist teachings of rebirth. Furthermore, when we take into account his skeptical stance akin to Xenophanes, the parallels become even more apparent. An important aspect of Anaxagoras' philosophy was his recognition of causation, proclaiming that the mind is the sole cause of physical transformations.
Protagoras (-420 BC) also embraced a view akin to Buddhism, asserting the absence of objective truth and highlighting the profound influence of the observer's mindset. As he famously stated, "Man is the measure of all things." Plato (-347 BC) later adopted this perspective. On the other hand, Democritus (-371 BC) took a more radical stance, contending that nothing exists apart from space and atoms.
In the 4th century AD, Plato again put forth the notion that souls experience continuous rebirth, carrying with them a distinctive "style" of knowledge derived from the Forms across lifetimes. He looked to Parmenides as an exemplar. Plato also integrated the Buddhist concept of impermanence, recognizing the perpetual flux inherent in all things. Furthermore, he posited that our perception shapes the world we perceive. Plato identified energy centers within the body, which correspond to various emotions, and employed the dream argument, likening everything in our world to a "shadow." Whether Plato derived his ideas from the teachings of Buddha, arrived at his conclusions independently, or a combination of both remains a mystery. Nonetheless, we can explore the concept of morphogenetic fields, as researched and identified by Rupert Sheldrake. These fields elucidate how collective mental inclinations can manifest the information they encompass across various points in space. Buddha’s teachings may have found their way to Greece even through space.
Aristotle (-322 BC), a student of Plato, focused his teachings more on individual development and sought evidence from the observable world, emphasizing empiricism. He asserted that the fear of death is the root cause of unhappiness. Like his mentor, he espoused a belief in an eternal cosmos devoid of both beginning and end. Aristotle developed the notion of an "unmoved mover" or "prime mover," an unchanging entity that serves as the creator and catalyst for all transformations. Aristotle did not suggest the existence of a deliberate entity, resembling a God, who actively "rolls a wheel" to bring about the flux of galaxies. The greek culture was multi-theistic. None of their gods possessed the role of an „unmoved mover”. Also, Aristotle himself was not a Hebrew theist worshipping the Thora, and the emergence of Christianity occurred at least three centuries later. Therefore, we may conclude, Aristotle developed his concept of the "prime mover" based on the teachings he received from his mentor Plato. Aristotle’s „prime mover” means, that there is a space-like mind or awareness, that continuously and spontaneously manifesting movement as an innate characteristic. Though intangible like space, it lacks a tangible form that can be directly perceived. Mind is not an object to point on.
Nevertheless, the mere fact that we are aware serves as a proof for that there is something ungraspable as space, that is conscious. Similarly, this same space-like non-thing manifests movement that emanates, forms and shapes our reality we call our world.
Alexander the Great (-323 BC) from Macedonia, a student of Socrates (-399 BC), embarked on his conquests across Persia and India accompanied by philosophers. During these expeditions, he brought forth a remarkable cultural exchange, exposing Eastern philosophies to the great minds of the time.
Phyrro (-270 BC), whose philosophy bore a striking resemblance to Buddhism, and Anaxarchus (-320 BC), who journeyed alongside Phyrro, delved into the profound concept of happiness found in Buddhism. Another philosopher, Onesicritus (-290 BC), embraced the notion of the dream argument, perceiving everything as akin to a dream. Their contributions fostered a rich cultural exchange, with Eastern philosophies making a lasting impact on Western thinkers.
One such thinker was Epicurus (-270 BC), who sought to maximize pleasure and alleviate fear and anxiety. He also explored the atomic theory. Contemporary to Epicurus was Hegesias of Cyrene (-290 BC), greatly influenced by the people of Ashoka, the illustrious Indian Buddhist king. Ashoka erected iron pillars inscribed with laws and numerous stupas, and Buddhist monuments. Drawing wisdom from these encounters, Hegesias developed a philosophy that strikingly mirrored several fundamental tenets of Buddhism, while also focusing on the pursuit of happiness.
Zeno (-262 BC), the visionary behind Stoicism, aimed for the attainment of happiness (eidaimonia). He posited that this could only be achieved through ethics and the cultivation of virtues. Simultaneously, he delved into matters of perception, understanding, and knowledge. Chrysippus (- c. 206 BC), the co-founder of Stoicism, espoused the Buddhist notion that wisdom lies at the core of disturbing emotions, which can be harnessed and brought under control.
Plotinus (-270 BC), the architect of Neoplatonism, took a leap of the mind beyond his contemporaries, proclaiming the ultimate mental nature of all things. Similar to Yogachara Buddhists, he may be regarded as the precursor to idealism or phenomenology.
Posidonius (- c. 51 CE), hailed as the most erudite individual of his era, embraced the belief in the inherent goodness of all beings, advocating for moral righteousness. He advised against anger and uncontrollable desires, a concept that fully resonates with Buddhism.
Later on, European travelers and conquerors, such as those in the Indo-Greek kingdom centered around Gandhara (2nd century CE - 1st century CE), also internalized many of the Hindu and Buddhist discoveries. Gradually, these profound philosophical masterpieces made their way to the European continent.
Jesus brought a much-needed breath of fresh air
Jeshua of Nazareth, also known as Jesus Christ (-30 CE), brought about a remarkable transformation in the prevailing dogmatic tendencies of his time. His teachings were characterized by a fresh wave of compassion, forgiveness, and love, which offered a new perspective. It is worth noting that historical evidence suggests his family's Persian Mazdayasni (Roman Zoroastrianist) tribal origins and his Eastern upbringing and education.
According to Elisabeth Clare Prophet, as she described in her book „The Lost Years of Jesus: Documentary Evidence of Jesus' 17-Year Journey to the East”, Joshua grew up and learnt in India, Nepal and Tibet. After gaining a deep understanding of the workings of the mind in the East, where he discovered its spontaneous nature as compassionate love, he acquired extraordinary powers.
His teachings were impressive in the Middle-East, nevertheless, Christian conversion did not succeed in Buddhist areas, as priests praised Jesus for his miracles such as turning water into wine, manifesting fish, restoring sight to the blind, and raising the dead, the Buddhists would direct them to neighboring valleys where yogis could perform similar feats and even more. Tibet, in particular, was known for its many such valleys. Nonetheless, driven by compassion, Jesus returned to his homeland to help his people. He understood that in the ultimate realization of reality, religious systems lose their significance. Thus, one can even work through them by interpreting their teachings in a corrected way. Therefore, he used the existing framework of Judaism, adopting its language and expressions, to transform it into a more positive and compassionate form. Naturally, his departure from promoting the old teachings, as prophesied, was met with resistance, but he ultimately brought about a profound change in the entire system.
Another intriguing aspect is the speculation that Jesus had a wife, symbolized by the feminine figure portrayed on his right in Leonardo da Vinci's painting, "The Last Supper." This figure is commonly referred to as Paul today, but according to esoteric knowledge, her original name was Mary. It is believed that during Catholic councils, such as the First Council of Constantinople (381 AD), her name was changed to align with patriarchal norms. From an Eastern perspective, Jesus can be viewed as a spiritually awakened yogi who achieved a state of union with his wife. In Eastern traditions, the union of a yogi and his wife is seen as a harmonious blending of masculine and feminine energies, symbolizing the balance and completeness of the individual.
According to proponents of certain hidden scriptures that were purportedly banned and destroyed by church leaders the V-shape formed by Jesus' right hand and Mary's left hand in Leonardo da Vinci's painting, the Last Supper, has a deeper meaning. They interpret this V-shape as representing a womb, symbolizing the notion that Jesus and Mary were a couple who had a child, often referred to as the "holy grail."
There are also claims from researchers as Gary J. McDonald, Geddes MacGregor, Benjamin Creme, Tim Butters and other that the Second Council of Constantinople (553 AD) played a role in banning and deleting teachings related to reincarnation. According to these claims, certain hidden scriptures were allegedly suppressed, suggesting that Jesus taught about the concept of rebirth or reincarnation. These teachings propose that beings undergo multiple cycles of rebirth after death, with their future experiences causally shaped by the actions and choices made in their previous lives.
He was only able to teach for a limited period of three years, and unfortunately, he himself acknowledged that he could not impart all of his knowledge. His time was cut short prematurely. Regrettably, many of his teachings were later distorted and misinterpreted, often in a manner contrary to his original intentions. The values of humility and a lack of worldly ambition were transformed into the power-driven rule of the Vatican's popes. Interestingly, the word "vatican" derives from "vatis" or "vantes," meaning seer or prophet, but it also carries connotations of madness. Additionally, "can" or "canus" refers to a dog, wolf, or jackal. The Hebrew word for jackal, "tannlyn" (tannah, tan, תַן) is associated with creatures such as crocodiles, monsters, dragons, and snakes.
The teachings that emphasized salvation and rewards in heaven for those who are good were transformed into the sale of penitential cards.
The notion of individual responsibility for one's own life was replaced by the judgments and dictates of priests. The values of humility and contentment with one's circumstances were overshadowed by the vast wealth of the popes and the establishment of the Vatican Bank. Respect for women was perverted into witch hunts and the persecution of independent-minded women. The teachings of peace and forgiveness were distorted by the Inquisition and later by the Jesuit order. It is a shame.
However, it should be noted that everyday Catholics are often idealistic and good-hearted individuals who demonstrate admirable acts of charity and engage in various social activities. They should be commended for their efforts. Nonetheless, those at the top, the pope and the bishops, deserve a more critical evaluation due to their deeper understanding and knowledge of history and the teachings.
The Romans heavily relied on the heritage of Greece
The Roman Empire, before Christianity became its dominant religion in 380 CE, had a competing religious belief system known as the religion of Mithras. This religion worshiped Mithra, the son of Zoroaster's main god Mazda (also known as Enlil), who was also revered by the Romans. Symbolically slaying bulls was a significant ritual in this religion, representing the slaying of the "devil," which was associated with Enki, the sun-god and enemy of Enlil, who was often depicted with two horns. Following the triumph of Christianity, followers of Enlil were persecuted.
The Romans largely relied on the intellectual contributions of the Greeks, adopting their gods by simply translating their names (Zeus became Jupiter, Posseidon became Neptune, etc.) and embracing Greek philosophy. Roman philosophers such as Lucretius (-55 CE), who explored evolution and atomism, Seneca (-65 CE), and Cicero (-43 CE) shared similar views to Posidonius, emphasizing the avoidance of anger, the management of grief, moral conduct, and benefiting others. Emperor Marcus Aurelius (-180 CE), although regarded as a great thinker promoting positive morality and honest political leadership, did not make significant contributions to philosophy of mind.
What did the Gnostics comprehend?
During the era of the ancient Greeks, a philosophical standpoint, commonly known as Gnosticism, emerged. Plato drew a distinction between "practical" (praktikos) and "intellectual" (gnostikos) individuals, with the Gnostics falling into the latter category. These individuals delved into the profound dimensions of existence, aspiring to fathom its underlying causes. Christian Gnosticism evolved from various groups, such as the Ophites, whose name stems from the root word "snake" (ophis). In their belief system, the snake or dragon symbolized the fundamental essence of all things and the hidden wisdom. They referred to this cosmic force as Leviathan, a mighty dragon or snake
We find its reptilian appearance in Sobek, the God of Akhenaten, and in the serpent-like Mesopotamian deity Marduk, who battled against Tiamat. There's also the colossal world-serpent Jörmungandr, whom Thor clashed with in Norse mythology. In Hindu mythology, we have Vrta, the serpent slain by Indra. Even St. Michael, the expelled ex-angel, confronted this reptilian force mentioned in the 7000-year-old Sumerian tablets, as Enki. In Mandaeism, the demon Ur and the god of Satanists, Baphomet, both represent Leviathan. Notably, the Hebrew characters of Leviathan's name (לויתן) can be seen around the corners of the satanic pentagram. Other names associated with this entity include Ialdaboath, Yahweh, and Ahriman.
Gnostic philosophy revolves around this very topic, with those who slay Leviathan being favored. Furthermore, Gnosticism defines happiness and wisdom as the ultimate goals. It is worth noting that the root of the Greek word "sophia" (wisdom) comes from the root "ophia." The concept of Monad - the idea that God is the universe that appears, disappears, and reappears again (an aeon) - also originated in Gnosticism.
Hippolytus of Rome (-235 CE) was among the early proponents of Gnosticism. However, Gnosticism encompassed various lineages, including Ophites, Basilideans, Valentinianism, Hermeticism, and the Persian Manichaeanism led by the Jewish-Christian Prophet Mani (216–276).
Manichaeanism, which became the main religion of the vast Uyghur Empire, from which the Huns originated, incorporates Zoroastrianism, and Mani also drew from Hinduism and Buddhism.
Followers of Manichaeanism criticize royal power and promote asceticism. Another lineage within Gnosticism is Mandaeism, a monotheistic religion whose adherents, known as Mandaeans, are Semitic people from Mesopotamia. The Aramaic word "manda" means knowledge, highlighting their philosophical inclination. Notably, significant figures like Adam, Noah, and John the Baptist, who baptized Jesus, were Mandaeans. Additionally, the Kabbalah, a Gnostic lineage that found its way into Judaism, holds immense significance. Its foundational text, the Zohar, is of great importance, as the group known as the Sabbatean-Frankists, who secretly influenced world history since the 17th century, still utilize it today.
In the East, Hinduism spread and gave rise to its various schools of thought
Philosophy also thrived in the Eastern world, particularly during Hinduism's classical period (c. 320-650 CE), which coincided with the Gupta Empire's golden age. This period marked a significant shift in development. While the earlier phase of Hinduism saw the emergence of belief systems centered around external gods, the second main period witnessed a profound inward turn. People began to utilize their noble intellects to introspect and delve into the workings of their own minds. This introspective approach laid the foundation for the development of various philosophical schools within Hinduism, bringing forth a deeper understanding of the self and the universe.
Within this timeframe, six schools of Hindu philosophy emerged. These schools were all mainly dualistic in nature, perceiving a clear separation between the comprehensive experience that transcends the individual experiences of the subject, object, and action. They regarded these aspects as distinct entities rather than mere facets of the same unified whole. Within the various schools of Hindu philosophy, there is an emphasis on the distinction between the doer, the action, and the result, highlighting the importance of who does what and the attainment of specific states of mind. On the other hand, Buddhism takes a different perspective, considering the subject, object, and action as interconnected facets of the same unified totality. In Buddhism, the focus shifts away from individual qualities or states of mind and instead centers on the nature of the mind itself. It is the space-like quality of the mind, the expansive awareness in which all outer and inner phenomena arise, that holds significance in Buddhism. While Hinduism may involve the aspiration to obtain the qualities of a creator or co-creator, Buddhism transcends such notions by emphasizing the fundamental nature of the mind and its interconnectedness with all phenomena. Even a god, in its manifestation, appears within the realm of space. No matter what states of mind we experience, all emerge in our mind, that is space-like awareness. Indeed, comprehending the nature of a space-like mind encompasses the understanding of both the appearances within it and the container itself—the expansive space in which all phenomena arise and exist. This contrasting viewpoint sets Hinduism apart from the non-dualistic perspective of Buddhism.
Returning to Hinduism, it is worth noting that the ancient Samkhya school of thought within Hindu philosophy focuses on the differentiation of consciousness and the cognition of the senses. According to Samkhya, life is seen as the point where these two aspects converge in conjunction with the elements. It is important to highlight that Samkhya is a non-theistic school within the Hindu tradition that propagates to follow „the Universal order”.
Gautama Siddhartha, who would later become known as the Buddha, extensively studied Samkhya teachings. His proficiency in Samkhya was such that his teacher asked him to take on the role of a teacher himself. However, Siddhartha soon realized that he had not yet discovered the underlying cause of human suffering and how it could be brought to an end. It was at this crucial juncture that he made the decision to sit beneath a tree in Bodh Gaya and resolve not to rise until he had found a solution. After a period of intense contemplation and meditation that lasted 49 days, he finally attained the profound realization he had been seeking.
The Yoga school, which is another prominent school within Hinduism, is based on the principles of Samkhya but incorporates the practice of yoga postures and breathing exercises. It introduces the concept of a "personal god" called Ishvara. Both the Samkhya and Yoga schools emphasize knowledge derived from perception, making them early precursors of what we now refer to as phenomenology in the Western philosophical tradition.
The key difference between Eastern and Western phenomenology lies in the practical method employed by Hindus, specifically the focus on a single object or point of concentration during meditation, known as samadhi. By directing their attention to a single point and allowing the incessant stream of thoughts to settle, practitioners aim to enter a state of samadhi, where all mental fluctuations cease. This practice enables individuals to recognize and understand the nature of their own thoughts and ultimately leads to a state of longer periods of thoughtlessness. This ability serves as a valuable starting point for comprehending the intricate workings of the mind.
The Nyaya school, which is one of the six main schools of Hindu philosophy, also places great emphasis on the acquisition of knowledge rather than the worship of a specific deity. According to Nyaya, human suffering arises from past mistakes or actions performed out of ignorance. It asserts that our current actions sow the seeds for our future lives, thus establishing a continuous chain of cause and effect. In the Sanskrit language, the term for action is "karma," and the consequences of these actions shape our circumstances. This understanding of karma, or causation, is like the currents beneath the surface of the ocean, which both generate and are influenced by the waves above.
The Nyaya school posits that through wisdom and right action, one can gradually transcend the cycle of recurring suffering and delusion. By following the path of correct knowledge and conduct, individuals can ultimately attain liberation from suffering, known as "Moksha," after several lifetimes. This perspective aligns with a form of direct realism, which suggests that knowledge is obtained through direct perception and observation. Interestingly, the same concept can also be found within Buddhism, demonstrating the cross-pollination of philosophical ideas between these ancient traditions.
The Vaisheshika school, the fourth main school of Hindu philosophy, shares some similarities with the Nyaya school. However, it places particular importance on the Vedas as the source of knowledge and holds a unique perspective on the nature of the universe. The Vaisheshikas consider atoms as the fundamental building blocks of the universe, similar to the views held by Western philosophers such as Democritus, Epicurus, and Lucretius.
According to the Vaisheshikas, knowledge is derived from two primary sources: perception and conscious inference. They are particularly interested in understanding how the waves of existence appear and disappear within the ocean of reality.
The Mimamsa school, one of the primary schools of Hindu philosophy, derives its name from the Sanskrit term that signifies "reflection" or "critical investigation." Similar to the Nyaya and Vaisheshika schools, Mimamsa holds the Vedas as the principal wellspring of knowledge. Nonetheless, it places specific emphasis on the "later" texts of the Vedas, which are recognized as the Upanishads. The Upanishads contain profound teachings that invite contemplation and exploration into the nature of existence. They delve into concepts such as the nature of the self (Atman) and its relationship to the ultimate reality (Brahman). Within the Mimamsa school, the focus lies on understanding and interpreting the teachings of the Upanishads in order to guide righteous actions and conduct, a virtuous life. By engaging in proper rituals, performing ethical deeds, and cultivating virtuous qualities, individuals strive to create positive mental impressions and accumulate good karma.
Adi Shankara (ca. 700-750), in his innovative approach, synthesized the principles of Mimamsa with insights from Buddhist texts, giving rise to Advaita Vedanta. This philosophical school, also known as Uttara-Mimamsa (meaning, the one that reaches/points over Mimamsa). Advaita Vedanta, stemming from its Hindu roots, evolved into a profound exploration of consciousness and meditative practice. It shares striking similarities with Chan/Zen Buddhism, emphasizing direct experiential understanding and the transcendent nature of reality. Adi Shankara's integration of Mimamsa and Buddhist wisdom birthed a transformative path that emphasizes self-inquiry and meditative practices to uncover the profound truth of non-duality. Advaita Vedanta, like the space-like mind in which all phenomena arise and subside, invites us to transcend limited perceptions and abide in the expansive awareness of our true nature.
Meanwhile, Buddhism paved its way in the East
During this period, a famous blue-eyed Buddhist philosopher from the Indo-Greek Kingdom named Bodhidharama (5th or 6th century) traveled to China and established the Shaolin Monastery, which later became known as the holder of Shaolin Kung Fu. He also taught meditation, which eventually evolved into Chan in China and Zen in Japan.
Buddhism also flourished in India and Nepal during this time. Nagarjuna, one of the widely known great ancient philosophers of ancient Asia from whom the so-called skeptic movement is derived, lived around the 3rd century. The word "skeptic" is actually a misunderstanding. Nagarjuna was not a doubter. He knew exactly what he was saying, as proved by modern particle physics and quantum physics: things have no inherent essence. We can split atoms into bosons, bosons into photons, and photons continuously appear and disappear in the vacuum. Being skeptical about whether one finds anything lasting or not is not the matter of context. Later, Candrakirti (c. -650), a professor at Nalanda University, explained and commented on Nagarjuna's condensed statements and made them understandable for everyday readers like us.
Vasubandhu (4-5th century) from the Gandhara kingdom and his half-brother Asanga (4th century), both masters of Nalanda University, were the founders of the "Mind Only" (Yogacharia or Chittamatra) school. This school is similar to Western solipsism, as it states that nothing exists except the mind, and the idea of a Self is just an illusory thought. The double-slit experiment in quantum physics concludes that whatever manifests as matter does so due to the involved consciousness, so Vasubandhu would have loved our modern science supporting his thesis. Vasubandhu's student Dignaga (5-6th century, ca. -540) further developed Buddhist deductive logic and states that there are only two ways of obtaining knowledge: perceptions and reasoning. Perceptions can be any impulses that arrive from senses, or it can be directly perceived knowledge as well, which we call intuition. His works influenced Dharmakirti (6-7th century), another master from Nalanda, who elaborated on the Mind Only school, and his works reached Adi Shankara through Adi Shankara’s teacher, contributing to the formation of Uttara-Mimamsa (Adveita Vedanta).
During the 8th century, the era of the esteemed Indian Buddhist scholar Shantideva, a group of remarkable individuals known as the 84 Mahasiddhas emerged. The term "mahasiddha" refers to "great supermen" where "maha" denotes greatness and "siddhi" signifies superpowers. These extraordinary individuals cultivated a diverse range of superpowers that were extensively explained by the Buddha himself. Among these Mahasiddhas, Saraha held a prominent role as their leader. It is noteworthy that Saraha's subsequent reincarnations continued to leave a lasting impact.
The mahasiddha’s main practice cave was located right next to Volture Peak in Rajagra, where the historical Buddha of our time contemplated the essence-less space-nature of appearances, recorded as the Heart Sutra. Gautama stated, "form is emptiness, emptiness is form, form and emptiness are inseparable," and this is where the Mahayana (middle way) lineage of Buddhism began.
This was also the time of the famous mahasiddha, Padmasambhava or Guru Rinpoche (ca. 8th-9th century), the 'Precious Guru,' who established Buddhist teachings in Nepal, Bhutan, and Tibet with the help of Shantarakshita (-788). They were invited by the king of the large Tibetan Empire, Tri-Song Detsen (-804), who wanted to free his land from Manichaeism, which he believed was confused and unauthentic as it mixed parts of many religions. Inspired by the supernatural capacities of the mahasiddhas, the king sought to introduce pure Buddhism to his empire.
Following his period of meditation retreat in Nepal, specifically in the Yagleshö cave along the route from Kathmandu to Parphing, Padmasambhava attained enlightenment, similar to the awakening experienced by Gautama Buddha.In response to the invitation from a local Bhutanese king, Padmasambhava embarked on a transformative journey, soaring through the skies to reach Bhutan with the noble purpose of eradicating hindrances, including the devastating impact of epidemics that plagued the region. Recognizing the profound wisdom and spiritual power of Padmasambhava, Tri-Song Detsen, the esteemed ruler of Tibet, extended a sincere invitation to the revered yogi. In tibet, Guru Rinpoche had pivotal role in the establishment of the venerable Samye Monastery, the first Buddhist monastery in Tibet.
Wherever Padmasambhava traveled, he disseminated the profound teachings of the Vajrayana. One of the extraordinary aspects of the highest mind-teachings is the practice of the "Great Perfection", also known as Dzogchen. Because Padmasambhava’s teachings that were inherited from teacher to student is the oldast so called lineage in tibel, it is called the Nyingma (the Old) Lineage.
So, to make it more clear: one of the aspects, worldview or meditation styles (Dzogchen) of the highest teachings of the Buddha (Vajrayana or Diamond Way teachings) are carried by the Nyingmapa lineage. This profound path embodies the understanding that everything in existence is already inherently perfect, yet our states of mind are veiled. The meditation system of Dzogchen or Great Perfection teachings carried by the Nyingmapas, serves as a transformative tool for exploring the depths of one's own mind. It is particularly beneficial for individuals who possess a keen awareness of their dislikes, those, who particularily know what they don’t like. By engaging in this practice, one can effectively cultivate a profound shift in their relationship with anger, transforming its strong tendencies. It can be likened to a gentle inclination towards experiencing the space-nature of mind or, more accurately, cultivating a heightened awareness of the mind in both meditation and one's overall perspective on life. The end-gole is enlightenment.
Here, it is important to note that the term enlightenment, as used in Buddhist scriptures, has nothing to do with the western word enlightenment, which refers to intellectual improvement. In Buddhism it is not intellectual, but much deeper than that. It is connected not only to an individual’s consciousness, but to their mind, that is behind consciousness and all phenomena as a space-like awareness. According to scriptures, when Gautama attained enlightenment, the entire universe trembled, and from that moment onward, he possessed an intuitive understanding beyond the constraints of space and time. His knowledge transcended ordinary boundaries, granting him profound insight into the nature of reality. It is said that even in the tiniest part of his being, such as the tip of his pinky finger, he experienced immense joy comparable to the bliss experienced by a couple in the peak of their lovemaking. This symbolizes the extraordinary depth of his realization and the profound happiness that accompanied his enlightened state.
Nevertheless, the history of the East was not always joyful. Around 1000 AD, a dark cloud descended upon the East, as the realm of philosophy and freedom of thought faced challenging times due to the brutal Muslim invasion of India, carried out in the name of Mohammed's Jihad. While Hindus and Buddhists sought to cultivate the qualities of their minds and generate positive karma, the Muslim invaders were driven by a desire for territorial expansion, forcibly converting or eliminating those who did not share their religious beliefs.
They ruthlessly destroyed texts and cultural institutions, leading to a devastating genocide that claimed the lives of over 200 million Hindus, Sikhs, and Buddhists. This staggering number surpasses 200-20 times the casualties caused by the Crusades (1-10 million), surpasses 34 times the Jews killed in World War II (5.8 million), and surpasses around 10 times the people died under Stalin's regime (20-40 million) in the USSR. Prominent centers of learning like the prospering Nalanda University, boasting 30,000 students, were reduced to ashes, eradicating invaluable knowledge and eliminating prescious people. The perpetrators justified these actions as a means to achieve "peace" from their own perspective, but from an Asian standpoint, their deeds accumulated tremendous negative karma.
The Indians, known for their fondness for sweet tea, valiantly resisted the invaders, yet they often found themselves on the losing against Islam’s „forceful negotiation style”. The oppressive rule of the aggressors persisted for a staggering span of 800 years, subjecting the Indian population to a prolonged era of enslavement.
The flourishing centers of philosophy in the East underwent a significant shift, with the focal points of Hinduism moving to South India.
In the face of Buddhism being nearly eradicated from North and certain parts of Middle India, rescue efforts were undertaken in two directions: the North and the South. Thus, the foundational teachings of Siddhartha, which encompass karma and numerous monastic precepts, known as Theravada or Hinayana (Small Vehicle) teachings, found their way into Southeast Asia. Simultaneously, the middle-level teachings (Great Vehicle or Mahayana) that emphasize motivation and the harmonious balance of compassion and wisdom migrated to the North. Building upon these two, the highest teachings of the Buddha, referred to as the Diamond Vehicle, Diamond Way, or Vajrayana, experienced a resurgence in the Himalayas as a second wave following Padmasambhava's influence. Vajrayana teachings directly illuminate the mind through the utilization of mantras, inner energy practices, tantric rituals, and awareness techniques. Different schools with diverse styles and traditions emerged, all converging towards the same objective: the recognition of one's own mind nature and, consequently, the nature of reality, known as enlightenment. Alongside the ancient Nyingmapa lineage, the Kagyü and Sakya lineages gradually emerged as the other two main Vajrayana lineages in Tibet. The Gelugpa lineage of the Dalai Lama, which primarily follows the teachings of the renowned Bengali siddha Atisha (-1054) and the Kadampa tradition of Mahayana Buddhism, emphasizing virtuous conduct and gradual development, emerged at a later period, and caused a lot of headache to the old lineages.
Thus, the Muslim invasion and massacre resulted in a second wave of Buddhism in Nepal, Bhutan, and the snowy lands of Tibet.
During this transitional period, an extraordinary event occurred when Naropa (c. -1082), one of the esteemed professors of Nalanda University, became profoundly inspired upon hearing the name of the renowned mahasiddha Tilopa (-1069). Filled with enthusiasm, Naropa embarked on a quest to find Tilopa, the old Indian sage, in order to receive teachings and guidance from him. As Naropa had too many thoughts and concepts, Tilopa literally had to smash his pride and ego to create some space for openness. In one episode, when Naropa finally found Tilopa, the latter was frying two fish on the bank of a stream. Naropa became moralistic and asked how a saint like Tilopa could fry living beings and eat meat. Tilopa looked at him without a word, threw back the two fried fish to the creek, snapped his finger, and the two fish healed and swam away immediately. Naropa's eyes grew, and he had no doubts about his teacher afterward. After Naropa purified his karma for years next to him, Tilopa finally sent him to fetch water, and when he returned, Tilopa simply snapped him in the forehead with his worn-out slippers. The ex-professor Naropa lost all concepts and realized the understanding of the so-called „Great Seal” or „Great Stamp” (skrt.: Mahamudra). It means that non-conceptuality, the non-dual experience of mind seals every experience from the moment of understanding it. When one sees the so-called space-awareness nature of phenomena without any intellectual concept, every experience is „sealed” by this view.
A Buddhist joke fits well here in the form of a question and answer: "Q: Was the Buddha thinking? A: He was when he wanted to." From this, we may infer that Buddhist philosophy first aims to not believe in anything or in any God, but to ask questions. The pursuit of intellectual understanding serves as a valuable tool to highlight its own limitations that is not sufficient to rely solely on the waves of the ocean for understanding the depth of the ocean. Instead, it is through delving into the depths of the mind that is behind relative consciousness (symbolized by the ocean, its inherent "oceanness" or water) that we discover profound insights into the nature of reality. Buddhism says that first, one polishes the brain, and then with meditation practice, "the knowledge falls down into the heart and becomes real understanding and experience." When one recognizes the nature of mind, they understand that the waves and depths of the ocean share a water-like quality that has always been present, no matter the flux it currently experiences.
Naropa passed on his teachings to the Tibetan translator Marpa (-1097), who was a layman and businessman with a large household who aimed to collect and bring Buddhist teachings to Tibet. Marpa's journey from Tibet to India lasted six years, including three years of acclimatization and learning Sanskrit in Nepal near the famous Swayambhu stupa of Kathmandu. He became the teacher of Tibet's most renowned yogi, Milarepa (-1135), who meditated in remote locations, such as caves, and engaged in the guru yoga practice that involves focusing on an enlightened teacher's qualities to obtain the same qualities. According to stories, after Milarepa reached enlightenment, he flew from mountain peak to mountain peak to teach his yogi students, and he flew from valley to valley to teach villeage people. His best student, Rechungpa, was a yogi who spent the majority of his time with his girlfriends and he preferred the free life of living in the mountains. Therefore, Milarepa's other exceptional student, Gampopa (-1153), a doctor from Dhagpo took his teachings further. Gampopa, known as the physician from Dagpo, possessed a deep intellectual background and held a great passion for books and knowledge. His love for learning was evident in his efforts to fund a library, which contributed to the preservation and dissemination of Buddhist scriptures. Thus, Gampopa played a crucial role in establishing the monastic system in Tibet, laying the foundation for the flourishing Buddhist monastic tradition in the region.
Gampopa, utilizing his vast knowledge and background, adeptly synthesized various teachings, providing valuable insights into the methods Buddhism employs to ”cut through” the limitations of concepts. Elaborating on these teachings can greatly enhance our understanding of the profound strategies employed by Buddhism to achieve a direct realization beyond conceptual frameworks.
The foundation of all Vajrayana teachings is rooted in the Mahayana tradition, specifically the gradual path teachings (Lam Rim) of the Kadampa lineage, as expounded by Atisha. These teachings emphasize the progressive accumulation of both merit and wisdom, step by step.
Gampopa, in his spiritual journey, skillfully merged the gradual teachings of the Lam Rim with the joyfully transformative practices of inner heat generation known as Tummo, which he learned from Milarepa. This integration of Tummo marked the next step to be practiced after the progressive approach of the Lam Rim. The Tummo is one of the six yogas of Naropa. Yogi practitioners meditate in caves with -40 Celsius degrees (-40 Fahrenheit), while the Tummo practice keeps them warm. The culmination of the Tummo practice is the profound realization of the non-dual nature of mind. By engaging in the practice of generating and then cutting through great bliss, practitioners are able to experience a mental breakthrough. This breakthrough entails the direct recognition and realization of the inherent non-duality and interconnectedness of all phenomena. It is an experiential understanding that transcends conceptual limitations and brings about a deep sense of unity and clarity. Through the transformative power of Tummo, practitioners can access this state of non-dual awareness and awaken to the true nature of their own mind. The transformative "flip-over" or "aha" or ”cut-through” experience in the mind takes place when the profound bliss generated within one's body merges with the boundless, spacious quality of the mind. It is a moment of realization where the practitioner directly experiences the inseparable nature of bliss and space-nature, recognizing the ultimate truth of reality.
In addition to the six yogas of Naropa learned from Marpa, Gampopa also embraced the practice of the union of Demchog and Phagmo, known as Chakrasamvara or the Buddha of Highest Bliss. This practice encompasses light and energy techniques that beautifully exemplify the inseparable nature of space and bliss.
Further more, Gampopa enriched his teachings by incorporating the profound mind-teachings of Dzogchen, specifically the Semde tradition. With this comprehensive approach, Gampopa developed a systematic explanation of the four stages of development that one may experience when engaging in the Mahamudra meditation of non-conceptuality, which he had learned from his teacher Milarepa. Mahamudra also aims for the ”cut-through”, but it does it by looking into what is behind and between thoughts. It is one of the methods through which the inherent space-like nature of the mind and phenomena is recognized and realized. One of the key insights that Mahamudra offers is the direct recognition that the experience of a solid and independent self, the belief in the existence of an inherent "I," that thought that says „I exist,” is merely a simple thought, a conceptual construct. It is seen that behind the words "I" and "exist," there is no concrete essence or substantial meaning that can be grasped. Ultimately, everything is found to be inherently space-like in nature. It is important to note that when we refer to "everything," we are acknowledging that all phenomena manifest and play out within the spaciousness of awareness. They appear, abide for a time, and then naturally dissolve back into the inherent openness of the mind. This understanding emphasizes the dynamic and transient nature of phenomena, which arise and cease in the vast expanse of space-awareness.
As Gampopa advanced in age, he embodied the essence of Mahamudra in his every response and interaction. When people approached him with questions or sought guidance, he would skillfully and spontaneously offer teachings from the perspective of Mahamudra. Gampopa's profound understanding of Mahamudra permeated his entire being, enabling him to effortlessly guide others on the path to awakening.
His synthesis of these teachings created a unique and comprehensive approach to spiritual development, encompassing both gradual and direct paths to awakening. He thus formed the oral transmition tradition of the Vajrayana teachings called the ”oral transmition lineage,” the Kagyü lineage. From Gampopa’s students four major and eight minor Kagyü lineages emerged, out of which the Karma Kagyü, the Drikung Kagyü, the Drukpa Kagyü and the Taklung Kagyü survived as significantly followed independent lineages. These Kagyü lineages are suited mainly for those who have a clear sense of what they want, the people who are mainly led by their desires.
The 1st Karmapa, Düsüm Khyempa (-1193), recognized as the reincarnation of Saraha and the recipient of Gampopa's complete Mahamudra transmission, played a pivotal role in Tibetan Buddhism. Foretold by Gautama Siddharta and Padmasambhava, he became the first consciously reincarnating lama in Tibet, earning the title of the "black hat" lama and the revered king of yogis. The Karma Kagyü lineage, established by him, gained widespread recognition and immense significance in Tibet. Presently, the 17th Karmapa, Thaye Dorje, holds the position of leadership.
Another noteworthy student of Gampopa was Phagmo Drupa (-1170), whose teachings paved the way for the Drikung Kagyü lineage. This lineage is currently led by the esteemed Drikungpa, also known as Drikung Kyabgon Chetsang Rinpoche. A prominent disciple of Phagmo Drupa was Jigten Sumgön, whose present incarnations are the lineage of the beloved Garchen Rinpoches.
Additionally, it is worth noting that the Drikung Kagyü lineage, which holds significant influence in Bhutan, traces its origins back to a student of Phagmo Drupa and his subsequent student.
During the same period as Gampopa, the Sakya meditation school was also established, which developed into a hereditary lineage within a family. As a result, Tibet came to have three distinct forms of Buddhism: the Nyingma tradition, which was the ancient tradition established by Guru Rinpoche; the Kagyü lineage, founded by Milarepa and known for its oral transmission; and the Sakya lineage, characterized by its family inheritance. These three lineages, known as the "red hat" Buddhist schools of Tibet, coexisted.
At a later time, a new lineage known as the "yellow hat" emerged. Je Tsongkhapa, a student of the student of the 4th Karmapa, founded the "new Kadampa" lineage, also known as Gelugpa. This lineage exclusively relied on scriptures originating from India. The Gelugpas, led by the Dalai Lamas, strategically built their monasteries at important crossroads, which gave them influence in worldly matters and political affairs. As a result, the other three schools entrusted them with political responsibilities while they focused on meditation and spiritual practices.
In Tibet, a common Kagyü joke expressed the different strengths and approaches of the Buddhist lineages: "If you want to study and engage in debates, go to the Gelugpas; if you want to study and focus on meditation, learn from the Sakyas; if you wish to meditate turn to the Nyingmapas, and if you wish to seek swift enlightenment, go to the Kagyüpas." This humorous remark was often accompanied by a joke: "Nyingma is for those with an angry temperament, Kagyü for those driven by desires, and Gelug is for those who are confused." Another saying depicted the Sakyas as engaging in extensive learning, discussions and lengthy oral transmitions, the Nyingmas as proud and fact-oriented, needing effort to connect and interact, while the Kagyüs were portrayed as affectionate, constantly embracing and supporting one another.
Both the Kagyü and Nyingma systems offer profound methods for recognizing the nature of mind. It is no surprise that the 2nd Karmapa (-1283), teacher of Möngke Khan and Kublai's brother, and the 3rd Karmapa (-1339), teacher of Chinese Emperor Toghon Temur, combined the core teachings of Karma Kagyü and Nyingma (Mahamudra and Dzogchen) to form Karma Nyingtik, which is still practiced today. The Drikung Kagyü lineage also has its own teachings on this union, known as Yangzab, passed down through the lineage of Garchen Rinpoches.
Additionally, there is a movement called the Rime movement in Tibetan Buddhism, supported by the Karmapas, where experienced lamas incorporate teachings from all four major lineages of Buddhism and skillfully select the most appropriate teachings for their students from their vast repertoire.
How the West tried to survive under the throat-grip of Catholic dogma?
During the Dark Middle Ages, which began around 400 CE, Western philosophy became heavily influenced by Catholic dogma, particularly through the teachings of St. Augustine (-430 CE). St. Augustine, originally a member of the Manicheist religion, later converted to Christianity and introduced the belief that evil is associated with matter, while good is associated with the spirit. This perspective led to the condemnation of anything that was considered beneficial to the body, including good food, comfortable living conditions, and even sex within the context of marriage. This period, spanning roughly 600 years until the 12th century, was marked by a lack of significant philosophical developments under the dominance of Christian dogma.
The first significant development following St. Augustine's influence was the assertion made by Anselm of Canterbury (-1109 CE) that "faith necessarily precedes reason." This statement established him as the "father of Latin Catholic scholasticism." St. Bernard (-1153) later founded the Cistercians, a religious order that placed emphasis on the Virgin Mary, offering a more balanced perspective within the male-dominated religious framework. Roughly a century later, St. Dominic (-1221) established the Dominican order, known as the "Hound Dogs of the Lord," [Lat.: Canes Domini] with the mission of disseminating and upholding Catholic dogma.
Unfortunately, this led to the Inquisition and the subsequent rise of the Knights Templar. Following in the footsteps of St. Dominic, St. Thomas Aquinas (-1274) adopted Aristotle's concept of the "unmoved mover" to explain God as the ultimate source of all movement. As mentioned earlier, Aquinas's interpretation of Aristotle's teachings is a significant deviation from the original intent. Aquinas manipulated Aristotle's words to suit his own agenda, leading to a misinterpretation of Aristotle's intended meaning.
Aquinas overlooked that there would be a necessary cause needed for the appearance of the "unmoved mover." The intellectual climate of the time was not yet conducive to discussing concepts such as infinity and timeless space. Aquinas' teachings dominated Catholic institutions for centuries.
St. Francis of Assisi, who lived in the 13th century, founded the Franciscan order, which originated from a lay movement. This order placed great emphasis on virtues such as humility, poverty, and compassionate engagement with the less fortunate and even animals.
Shortly thereafter, Roger Bacon (1214-1294), driven by a mystical and philosophical perspective, pushed the boundaries of logic in an attempt to eradicate the cause of ignorance. The Franciscan scholastic Duns Scotus (1266-1308) initiated discussions on the 'essence' of beings, while Meister Eckhart (-c.1328), from whom Eckhart Tolle derived his name, introduced the principle of "Godliness" as an inherent quality of humanity. Unfortunately, due to the prevailing strict conditions, their ability to expand the horizons of thought was significantly hindered.
As the field of intellectual discourse became dominated by the Catholic Church, an insightful voice emerged in the form of William of Ockham (-1347), who advocated for a direction devoid of excessive thoughts—a simplicity in thinking known as "Occam's razor." This groundbreaking approach gradually undermined the foundations of scholasticism within Latin Catholic institutions.
It took two centuries for the emergence of distinguished figures during the Northern Renaissance, such as Desiderius Erasmus (-1536) and Sir Thomas More (-1535). Both dedicated themselves to ecclesiastical reform and assumed leadership roles in intellectual circles. Erasmus, in particular, highlighted the importance of popes refraining from collecting wealth and instead following the example of humility and poverty set by their Master.
Cracking the Dogma of Catholicism: and the Tape-Fixing Attempt
In due time, Western society reached a pivotal moment when mental freedom, the liberation of thought, fought its way out of enslavement. The stage was set for an Augustinian monk to boldly nail his "95 points of freedom of a Christian" to a castle church in Wittenberg, Germany, in 1517. This act symbolized a powerful stand against the system of indulgences and the overarching authority of the pope. Martin Luther (-1546) employed immaculate logic, paving the way for Jean Calvin (-1564), who emphasized the importance of knowing oneself in addition to understanding God. This marked a significant shift from the Augustinian belief that only God mattered and the body was inherently sinful, to recognizing the importance of both God and self-understanding. Calvin's unfortunate adherence to predestination, the belief that one's life is predetermined, reflects the prevailing mindset of his time. Nonetheless, his ideas represented a significant breakthrough in challenging the rigid constraints imposed by Catholic dogma.
The Protestant Reformation led by Luther and Calvin triggered a Counter-Reformation response from the Catholic side. In response, the pope called upon Ignatius Loyola (-1556) to establish the Jesuit order—a bloodthirsty group formed along military lines. Recognizing the waning effectiveness of oppressive dictatorship, they shifted their strategy, promoting a form of materialism that directed people's attention toward earthly matters. They advocated for the integration of faith and good works, effectively diverting individuals from excessive contemplation and encouraging action. The Jesuits, serving as the Church's dedicated missionaries, retained their individual free will, enabling them to act as needed without explicit directives. Meanwhile, the reestablished inquisition effectively upheld Catholic authority.
The debates surrounding permissible actions and behaviors, particularly within the realms of Catholicism and Protestantism, gave rise to the development of a language and framework for civil law. This shift towards civil law, prioritizing human rights and freedoms, marked a significant step towards religious freedom in the Western world. The influential Dutch thinker H. Grotius (-1583), known as the intellectual architect of the Peace of Westphalia, played a crucial role in advancing the concept of natural rights. These rights are considered fundamental and not contingent upon the customs of any particular culture. From Christian origins, the idea of human equality resurfaced, extending basic rights to both serfs, aristocrats, and even popes under the umbrella of natural law. Additionally, the notion of an "international society" laid the groundwork for international law.
The Hidden Political Philosophy and Legal Foundations of Catholic Control
Civil law, historically, has also been closely intertwined with military law and the concept of the "law of the see," which stands in contrast to the "law of the land." Under the law of the land, individuals are recognized as living beings with legal rights, including the right to own property. However, under the law of the see, individuals are effectively considered to have gone and disappeared ”in the see” and are legally declared non-living beings whose ownership is transferred to the ruler, in this case, the pope. Why the pope? The Roman Empire employed this law to exert control over the occupied people, or "civitis." When the Holy Roman Empire agreed to the Peace of Westphalia, it essentially established a system that further served the empire's own agenda. But what was that agenda? The papal bull of 1213, known as the holy covenant, asserts that "all souls, all flesh, and all land" are the property of the pope. As a result, people are stripped of their rightful inheritance and lose their freedom, as their bodies become the property of the pope. The Magna Carta of 1215 serves as a deceptive cover-up to conceal the loss of true inheritance status (Cestui Que Vie). King John deceitfully misrepresents the nobility's freedom and rights, while being aware that all ultimately belong to the pope. The true distribution of power and the conveyed power situation are deliberately kept separate and secret.
In 1302, the bull "Unam Sanctam" declares the pope's right to control kings. The popes exert control over their empire from the Vatican, which derives its name from "Vatic," signifying prophetic/oracle, and "can," meaning dog/wolf/jackal, with "jackal" being the Latin word for "draconis." Therefore, the civil law agreed upon by the Roman Empire served to further strengthen the pope's control under the law of the see, but not in the way we might expect. Secularity and internationalism were pursued as means of achieving world control by treating all individuals as non-living beings under the law of the see, and influencing their beliefs through the elite ruling under the control of the Vatican city-state. The Vatican, in addition to its own city-state, also established two other city-states: London City and Washington DC. This includes both the "line of the priest" exerting influence over monotheistic beliefs, including their respective churches, and the "line of the king" exerting control over civilians through an elite class and their affiliated organizations. The Vatican, in addition to its own sovereign territory, has also established two other independent city-states: London City (to assert economic control) and Washington DC (to exercise political and military control). Fortunately, the plan for a new world order did not come to fruition.
Unleashing the Jinn of Science: A Point of No Return
From a certain point onward, the expansiveness of the human mind could no longer be contained in a closed bottle. The realms of science began to unfold, as great minds ushered in new perspectives. N. Copernicus (-1543) boldly presented the heliocentric view, followed by J. Kepler (-1630) and his revolutionary model of the solar system. Galileo G (-1642) gazed upon the moon through his telescope and uncovered the laws of falling bodies. F. Bacon (-1626) famously declared that "knowledge is power," solidifying the growing influence of scientific pursuits and inventive endeavors.
Further more, T. Hobbes (-1679) posited that the universe consists solely of matter in motion, asserting that even thoughts are nothing more than the movement of matter within the brain. His clashes with the Catholic Church in France forced him to seek refuge in London, where he aligned himself with O. Cromwell (-1658) in the battle against King Charles I during the English Civil War (1642-1651). Following their victory, Cromwell showed little mercy to Catholics in Britain, while Protestants were embraced.
Also I. Newton (-1726) arrived with his groundbreaking work in Newtonian physics, particularly the elucidation of the law of gravity. (Today, thanks to the groundbreaking discoveries of Einstein, we understand that the phenomenon we commonly refer to as gravity operates in a different manner. It is not the Earth pulling us downward, but rather the atmosphere exerting a force that presses us down. Nevertheless, during the time of Newton, the concept of gravity represented a scientific breakthrough.) Newton also emphasized the principle of causality, recognizing its indispensable role in the realm of physics. "Absolute and relative rest and motion are distinguished by their properties, causes, and effects," proclaimed Newton. Science shattered barriers, paving the way for unceasing logical and intellectual advancement.
Thanks to the religious freedom forged by Protestantism and the unrestricted growth of intellectual exploration, the collective consciousness of society reached a point where the German philosopher J. Böhme (-1624) could arrive at a profound revelation. He argued that there exists no ultimate distinction between the human mind and God.
The Deviant Few: Criminal Minds Along the Journey
Let us now travel back a century to assemble the lineup of historical criminals.
The senior official N Machiavelli (-1527), who was fully traumatized and got half-mad in the tortures he had to withstand to gain some power and fame wrote a book.This book, a manual for criminality, was recommended to and written directly for the Prince of the Florentine Republic. Machiavelli's underlying motive was to seek the Prince's financial support, thus hoping to attain personal renown. In his writings, he advocated for the utilization of cruelty, deception, treachery, and crime in politics and leadership. Although the Prince did not pay much attention to this book at the time, it gained traction later on. Today, anyone seeking to acquire material advantages through malevolent means can readily access and utilize it as a guidebook.
In the 16th century, the circulation of yet another criminal handbook posed a threat to the freedom of the Balkans and Central Europe. Europe found itself confronted with an Ottoman invasion, much like India faced during the turn of the first millennium. The Ottomans successfully occupied a significant portion of Europe, their expansion only ceasing when they encountered the resilient resistance of the Kingdom of Hungary and the formidable armored battalions of Vienna. Under the dominance of Muslim rule, individuals were deprived of the liberty to think, speak, or act freely. Women were relegated to secondary status, treated more as objects or tools, as prescribed by the teachings of this criminal handbook. The countries of Europe endured a lengthy struggle against the Ottoman presence, with the duration ranging from 150 to 500 years, depending on the specific country.
In the Ottoman Empire, the activities of a Turkish Jewish rabbi named Zabbatai Zevi (-1676) had a profound impact on Western civilization, comparable to that of Jesus. His lunatic philosophy was as follows: According to the Talmud, the arrival of the Jewish Messiah is contingent upon everyone either engaging in immoral (bad) behavior or displaying exemplary virtuous (good) conduct. Since it is unrealistic to expect everyone to behave virtuously, Zevi proposed that it would be easier for all individuals to act in a morally corrupt manner.
He subverted the principles of the Ten Commandments, inverting their intended meaning. "Do not kill" became "kill," "do not lie" became "lie," "do not commit adultery" became "engage in adultery," and so forth. Shockingly, pedophilia gained prominence among the members of this cult. The ethical and moral standards that we hold dear took a severe downturn. Due to the Jewish holy day of Sabbath falling on Saturdays, Zevi's cult engaged in their group sexual orgies specifically on that day. This led to them being referred to as Sabbateans, drawing from the connection to the Sabbath. From a Christian perspective, this cult represents pure Satanism. His teachings spread among Ashkenazi Jews, because ”he permitted what was prohibited”.
Here we may add to the storyline. According to the research conducted by geneticist Eran Elhaik PhD, an Ashkenazi Jewish American from New York, Ashkenazi Jews have been traced back to the region known as Ashkenaz, North-East Turkey, which was also referred to as Alania. Elhaik's findings suggest that the ancestral roots of Ashkenazi Jews can be linked to this particular area.
The region mentioned was previously part of the Khazarian Empire, located between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea in the Caucasus. The empire consisted of three tribes: the Alans (from the area of Alania/Ashkenaz), the Sabirs (known today as Seclers in Transylvania), and the Onogurs (present-day Hungarians).In 740 AD, the Khazarian Khan named Bulan initiated the conversion of his nation to Talmudic Judaism, which included elements of the worship of Baal. Baal was a two-horned figure often represented by a bull. His grandson, Obadia, played a significant role as the main inquisitor during this period. The Alans were among the first to undergo conversion, resulting in a religious shift to Judaism while their Alanian (Caucasian) genetic heritage remained unchanged. Today, individuals with Alanian ancestry contribute to a significant portion of worldwide Judaism, accounting for approximately 98 percent, and 80-85 percent within the Jewish population in Israel.
A significant portion of the Jewish population today has genetic roots tracing back to the Alans. The Seclers, who lived in close proximity to the Alans in the north, and the Hungarians, who resided further north, were not inclined to embrace the idea of conversion. As a result, they engaged in a ”powerful negotiation” with the Alans, ultimately leading to the dissolution of the Khazarian Empire. The Seclers and the seven Hungarian tribes joined forces and moved back to the Carpathian Basin (876 AD), a region that had been the homeland of their Hun-Avar ancestors since around 140 AD.
Subsequently, due to the expansion of the Ottoman Empire, the Alans, also known as Ashkenazis, were compelled to relocate as well. They began establishing Ashkenazi (Alanian Khazar) communities throughout Europe (mainly in the area of current Poland and Germany). Some Ashkenazis opted to remain in Alania (present-day Turkey), where they paid taxes to Islam while secretly practicing Judaism. Others converted to Islam.
We shall come back to Zevi from this historical side-storyline. As Zevi's teachings spread like wildfire, they eventually reached the ears of the Turkish Sultan. The Sultan warned and threatened Zevi to either convert to Islam or face execution. Within a few days, Zevi donned a turban. This act further fueled the pride of his followers, as it established the tradition that lying, when practiced by Sabbateans, was considered a virtue. This allowed them to officially belong to any religion while secretly engaging in Sabbatean practices.
Furthermore, in the year June 6th 1666 (66 666), Zevi, an Ashkenazi Jew who had migrated to Jerusalem, boldly proclaimed himself as the new Jewish Messiah. This declaration sent news shockwaves throughout the Ashkenazi Jewish community all around the world. He gained a large number of followers who followed his teachings of Sabbateanism.
In the next generation, a Sabbatean Ashkenazi man named Jakub Lejbowicz, who later adopted the name Jacob Joseph Frank (–1791), claimed to be the reincarnation of Sabbatai Zevi. Around 1786, he relocated to Frankfurt am Main, a prominent center of Ashkenazi Jews in Germany, where he spread his teachings. This marked the emergence of Sabbatean-Frankism. During this time, Frank crossed paths with Meyer Amschel Bauer, who later adopted the name Rothschild. Rothschild, who was involved in Sabbatean-Frankism, approached the Jesuit University professor Adam Weishaupt (-1830) to establish a secret society known as the Illuminati. As we know, Jesuits are commonly known as the Pope's army. In May 1st, 1776, the formation of the secret society known as the Illuminati took place, as symbolized by the Roman numerals MDCCLXXVI found at the bottom of the pyramid on the one-dollar bill. This society also embraced Sabbatean-Frankism. The 25-point program of the Illuminati was designed as a systematic guide to attain complete control over society, embracing also the ideologies of Sabbatean-Frankism. Their aim is to achieve – as they express it – "full spectrum dominance."
The Awakening of the First Ones: The Dawn of Free Thought
During the 17th and 18th centuries, while the Ottomans had already conquered the Southern and Eastern parts of Europe, the free countries of Western Europe embarked on a journey of progress, embracing logic, science, and religious freedom. It was during this transformative period, known as the Enlightenment, that the seeds of modern philosophy were sown. „Enlightenment was understood as the education of the general public; its liberation from superstition, ignorance, and servitude; and the cultivation of its taste, manners, and reason.”(FCBFR,p165) The connection to Greek mythology, where Prometheus, also known as the Light Bearer (Lux Ferre or Lucifer), bestowed the light of knowledge upon humanity, mirroring the serpent's revelation to Eve about their individual intellect and ego, likely forms a profound association with the concept. From an operational standpoint, this idea closely aligns with the Freemasonic principle of actively seeking enlightenment or 'searching for the light.'
Modern Western philosophy was propelled forward by René Descartes (-1650), also known as Cartesius, a French soldier with battlefield training. Descartes developed practical and rational insights about life and the nature of things. His method of questioning everything became renowned as "Cartesian Doubt." One of his significant contributions to Western philosophy was the proposition that the mind and body are distinct entities, not the same. Descartes emphasized that existence, from a practical standpoint, can only be verified through the act of thinking. Thus, thinking serves as proof of existence. This Cartesian mode of thinking laid the foundation for rationalism in modern Western philosophy.
Baruch Spinoza (-1677) received a Jewish education in Amsterdam, but he eventually distanced himself from religious circles. Unlike Descartes, Spinoza believed that mind and matter were inseparable (HLHP). In his quest to understand existence, he posited that everything is a part of "God or Nature" (DRID). Spinoza advocated for free will and the importance of acting benevolently towards others. According to T. Goldstücker (-1872), a German Sanskrit scholar, Spinoza exhibited an "intellectual indifference to the transitory charms of this world," which aligns closely with the approach of Advaita Vedanta. Goldstücker noted "the Brahman, as conceived in the Upanishads and defined by Sankara, is clearly the same as Spinoza's 'Substantia'”.
While one of Spinoza's main students converted to Sabbatean-Frankism, Spinoza himself kept his distance from it.
Nicolas Malebranche (-1715), a French priest, continued the tradition of questioning everything, including one's own self. He possessed a keen intellect and delved into the inquiry of the existence of the self. However, he did not arrive at the conclusion that the mind is space-like. As a priest, Malebranche proposed that while the self cannot be located in any particular place, the idea of the self, along with all other ideas, exists solely within God.
Shortly after Spinoza, Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz (1646-1716) further developed Spinoza's ideas and put forth the concept that the „universe is made of an infinite number of simple substances known as monads” (AJKVST). According to Leibniz, only monads are considered "real," while the rest of the world, including things, bodies, and movements, are mere illusory phenomena. This viewpoint established a clear distinction between mind and body, refuting materialism. Leibniz proposed the notion of a "preestablished harmony," whereby everything in the world appears and behaves in perfect accord. This sounds similar to the idea of the "Universal/Godly order" found in Hinduism. This idea encompassed both the concept of God, who created this harmonious order, and a more subtle interpretation of causality. Leibniz was renowned for his philosophy of optimism, believing we live in the best possible world. He considered that every sensation is a kind of intuition – thus using the word as ’intuition is when something comes into consciousness’-. He didn't believe in "a priori" intuitive perception but viewed space and time as external constructs related to monads, rather than the mind. Monads are indivisible, non-physical entities that possess perception and appetite. According to Leibniz, each monad is a unique, self-contained entity that perceives the universe from its own perspective. While humans are composed of complex monads, simpler monads exist in everything around us, even in inanimate objects. Leibniz formed the expression ’windowless monads’, as his monads have no causal connection in his system. He could not leave the God-idea behind due to his masonic oaths, still, he emphasized interconnectedness of all things. He stated: „Reality cannot be found except in One single source, because of the interconnection of all things with one another.”
Leibniz also dabbled in the use of iChing divination, an ancient Chinese practice employed by Confucianism and Taoism. He saw it as a way to gain insights into a person's current situation and used it as a descriptive mirror for reflection.
Christian Wolff (-1754), a renowned German philosopher, shared similar views to Leibniz. He believed substance to be a "living mirror" of the universe. As he expressed it: „Substance is ... in its essence representational power. ...according to its essence as representational power, carry the ground of all these relations within itself, thus being a "living mirror" of the universe.”(DHUREK)
The British Brains and French Hearts: Aspiring for Truth and a Better World
In Britain, the philosophical tradition of British Empiricism emerged, drawing inspiration from the works of F. Bacon and T. Hobbes. British Empiricism emphasized the primacy of sensory experiences and observations as a basis for knowledge, favoring the "a posteriori" (based on experience) over the "a priori" (prior to experience). This contrasted with rationalism, which asserted that reason itself is a source of knowledge.
British empiricism, originating from J. Locke (-1704), posits that knowledge can be acquired through reason, and sensory experience. Locke's view equates thoughts with material movements in the brain, similar to Hobbes. He also emphasized that knowledge emerges from the conflict and resolution of thoughts (agreements versus disagreement results knowledge).
D. Hume's (-1776) empiricism – though it was rooted in analysing matter - leads to the conclusion that nothing enduring can be found in things, echoing the ideas of Xenophanes in the West and Nagarjuna in the East, who believed in the space-like nature of everything. This philosophical position is referred to as skepticism, characterized by the expectation that lasting truths cannot be found in matter as everything carries an inherent space-nature. Modern particle physics reveals that breaking down neutrons and protons into their elemental components as quarks, leptons, and bosons results nothing else than light and electromagnetism. Also quantum physics confirms the skeptics' perspective by showing that the observer's attention manifests matter, supporting their skepticism. In this perspective, empiricism undermines its own foundation of experience as the source of knowledge. In a magneto-electrically holographic world, no experience can be deemed truly real. Instead, it is the mind that gives rise to and imbues experiences with a sense of reality, shaping our beliefs about their existence.
G. Berkeley's (-1753) empiricism went beyond conventional boundaries by asserting that individuals have subjective experiences based on their perceptions, leading to the notion that there is no universal truth. This expansion of thought was influenced by skepticism, Cartesian doubt, scientific advancements, and the logic of realism, broadening the horizons of people’s thinking. Converging paths indicated a shared direction, suggesting that humanity was on the brink of liberating itself from the rigid constraints of dogma. The prevailing tendency hinted at a forthcoming departure from strict and unquestioned beliefs.
Berkeley took this idea even further by suggesting that the world as we know it exists only within our consciousness. Consequently, the existence of things depends on mental activity and is highly subjective. This perspective is known as subjective idealism, empowering individuals to acknowledge only the existence of things that leave an imprint on their consciousness. This form of thinking aligns with immaterialism, where existence is not defined by material reasoning, but rather by the immaterial reasoning derived from consciousness-based experiences. It emphasizes that the nature of existence extends beyond mere physicality and encompasses the subjective and intangible aspects of conscious awareness.
In the cases of Berkeley and Hume, we witness a common theme among empiricists: as they delve deeper into their thinking, they come to the realization that there is no external reality that can be genuinely and empirically observed. Instead, they recognize that all experiences and phenomena occur within the realm of the observer's consciousness. This perspective highlights the subjective nature of our perception and challenges the notion of an objective, independently existing reality.
If everything arises within consciousness, why not cultivate a happy consciousness? Among the successors of Locke, J. Bentham (-1832) emerges as a prominent figure who developed his ideas around the principle of maximizing happiness for the greatest number of people. His utilitarian perspective, following in the footsteps of W. Godwin (-1836), prioritized the overall happiness of the community over individual happiness while condemning all forms of punishment as harmful.
Bentham's recognition of universal desire for happiness, combined with the mathematical understanding that the happiness of many outweighs that of one, resonates with the principles of Buddhist philosophy. Buddhism emphasizes the pursuit of happiness for all living beings, prioritizing collective well-being over individual significance. The rationale behind this is that if reality is like the vast expanse of space, unconstrained by material limitations, the concept of "one" signifies limitation and lack of spaciousness. On the other hand, the idea of "many" aligns more closely with the truth by embracing a sense of expansiveness and openness. Consequently, the happiness of many holds greater significance and is more aligned with the truth than the happiness of a single individual.
During this period, the French grew weary of abstract logic, reason, analysis, and empiricism in philosophy. They longed to express their subjective emotions and infuse philosophy with a sense of tenderness and human warmth. J.J. Rousseau (-1778) spearheaded the romantic movement, reviving enthusiasm, temperament, and sensibility. Initially, the movement was detached from politics, but it became intertwined with it through Rousseau. Treating others as reflections of oneself, the movement fostered egoism, self-expression and self-interest.
Rousseau, despite advocating for the principle of "Never hurt anybody" and emphasizing individual expression on a personal level, eventually put forward recommendations for the state to prohibit religions, political parties, and other institutions. These ideas, taken to their extreme, resulted in a form of Totalitarian Control reminiscent of quasi Communism. While Rousseau initially advocated for personal freedom, it is important to note that his later proposals for state intervention and control bear the signs of a cultivated egotism, managed through a world-control establishment. Rousseau’s masonic steps were typical signs and tendencies that show the intention of the New World Order's creation.
„Rousseau sent this essay to Voltaire, who replied (1755): 'I have received your new book against the human race, and thank you for it. Never was such a cleverness used in the design of making us all stupid.’ ”(JJRE)
Voltaire, also known as F-M. Arouet, ridiculed Leibniz's optimistic philosophy of a controlled community's happiness. In contrast to Rousseau's proposed societal structure, Voltaire expressed admiration for the Hindu Vedas, which emphasize the individual's pursuit of god-like realization. Appreciating the wisdom and knowledge found in the Vedas’ philosophical traditions he famously remarked: „The Veda was the most precious gift for which the West had ever been indebted to the East.”
The Manipulation of Evolution: Controlling Minds Towards Cruelty
While Kant, Fichte, and Schelling expanded people's perspectives through their transcendental approach, the promotion of "purely cold logic" challenged them. This opposition came not only from Hegel but also from the perspective of evolutionary science.
Charles Darwin (-1882), a member of the British nobility, is widely renowned for his contributions to the concept of evolution. However, it is a common misconception that he originated the idea. In reality, Darwin presented a depiction of the evolutionary process that was often perceived as cold and dark. Why is that?
Prior to Darwin, Jean-Baptiste Lamarck (-1829) proposed the idea that evolution is a process. It is necessary to acknowledge Alfred Russel Wallace (-1913) alongside Darwin when discussing the concept of evolution. Rightfully, we should be talking about AR Wallace only, not Darwin. Why is that?
Wallace's remarkable scientific paper introduced a crucial element of evolution, describing it as "the illumination of the weakest." This concept highlights how the entire population uplifts those who are left back. This concept embraces the idea of compassion. Unlike Darwin, who was a nobleman with strong connections to the Queen's Royal Court and its institutions, Wallace was an ordinary man. Wallace, realizing the necessity and utmost significance of royal connections for publication, approached Darwin and sought his assistance in publishing his paper. At the time, Darwin only had sketches of his theory and no completed paper. When Darwin read Wallace's paper, his noble countenance flushed red. He hastily assembled a paper presenting the opposite viewpoint and organized a joint presentation titled "The Origin of Species" by Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace. By employing this tactical trick, Darwin ensured that the focus was primarily on him as a nobleman, overshadowing Wallace, who played the role of the "second violinist." Consequently, Darwin presented his theory to the public.
At this point, we should be aware that Charles Darwin's grandfather was a 33rd degree freemason, that means that in order to obtain that degree, he had to state, that he followa the "Dark Lord of the World." Masons on lower degrees are typically not aware of or informed about the higher-degree rituals and oaths within freemasonry. It is possible that they may choose to overlook or remain indifferent to such matters, considering them beyond their current level of involvement or knowledge within the organization.
It is worth noting that Charles Darwin's father being a mason have influenced his ideas, including those related to the "survival of the fittest," the dominance of force, and the concept of "might makes right." These notions laid the groundwork for the philosophy known as Social Darwinism. This perspective provides "scientific arguments" to justify constant competition, genocidal wars, mass murder, and suffering as ”necessary for progress”. In contrast, Wallace advocated a compassionate and humanistic approach of mutual development, fostering a state of mind rooted in empathy and intuition, Darwin mislead humanity towards an evil approach.
Darwin's ideas indeed resonate with Hegel's concept of requiring an antithesis and conflict for development.
The meeting minutes of the 33rd degree Supreme Council of Mizraim Freemasonry at Paris says: „It is with this object in view [scientific theory of evolution] that we are constantly by means of our press, arousing a blind confidence in these theories. The intellectuals will puff themselves up with their knowledge and without any logical verification of them will put into effect all the information available from science, which our agentur specialists have cunningly pieced together for the purpose of educating their minds in the direction we want. Do not suppose for a moment that these statements are empty words: think carefully of the successes we arranged for Darwinism…” Thus, 33rd degree masons expressed that they will manipulate the media to promote unquestioning belief in Darwinism’s theory of evolution, shaping people's minds in the direction of the „survival of the fittest”. This deception, applied by Freemasonry, is considered one of the most significant ones imposed on humanity.
Drawing on Darwin's concept that the stronger physical force determines the course of history, Herbert Spencer (-1903) developed the notion of scientific racism, which influenced genetic research with the idea that "the strongest genes survive." Charles Darwin's son, Leonard Darwin (-1943), and grandson, Charles Galton Darwin (-1959), both served as presidents of the British Eugenics Society, an organization involved in the study and promotion of Spencer’s topic.
The Dead-End: The Philosophy of Communism
During his time in London, K. Marx (-1818) attended lectures on Darwinism, which focused on the theory of evolution. Following Darwinism’s cruelty and Hegel’s ideas on creating conflicts through the clash of the opposites he started to form his philosophy.
He was not on a high opinion about democracy either: „The oppressed are allowed once every few years to decide which particular representatives of the oppressing class are to represent and repress them.” This approach implies that the ruling class should establish at least two political parties from behind the scenes, creating the illusion of opposition, and allowing people to vote for either party, even though both represent the same oppressive system.
As a follower of Hegel, Marx embraced the idea of excluding intuition and emphasizing intellectualization in understanding the world. He expanded upon this view by integrating the philosophies of Hegel and Feuerbach, resulting in a materialistic perspective that limited the scope of reality.
In addition to Hegel, Marx also drew inspiration from other philosophers, such as T. Hodgeskin (-1869). Hodgeskin was a prominent thinker who laid the groundwork for socialist ideas. Marx often quoted Hodgeskin, who was among the first to delve into concepts like the "natural or artificial right of property" and the "exploitation of labor."
F. Engels (-1895), hailing from a prosperous Lancashire (England) textile factory-owning family, provided financial support to Marx. Together they played a significant role in organizing the Social Democratic Workers' Party of Germany. Renting a house located in the old city center square of Brussels, they documented their communist ideas, which later evolved into the Communist Manifesto. In this way, Marx, with the assistance of the capitalist Engels, established an antithesis to the capitalist thesis, ensuring that both hands belonged to the same body.
At the end of the 19th century, the Social Democratic Workers' Party of Germany and Marx's ideas captured the interest of a young Ukrainian student (from the Russian Empire) with Sabbatean beliefs, who was studying in Switzerland. V.I. Lenin (-1924), fluent in English and German, wholeheartedly embraced these ideas and effectively put them into practice in the Russian Revolution of the far-left Bolsheviks in 1917. To finance the Bolshevik Revolution, Lenin and his Ukrainian comrade L. Trotsky (-1940), who later established the Red Army, obtained loans from Kuhn, Loeb and Co. (New York), headed by Jacob Schiff. Schiff personally financed Trotsky's multiple trips to the United States.
Marx's ideas, potentially influenced by his Ashkenazi Sabbatean-Frankist background, provided a stark antithesis to the thesis of Hitler's ideology. The parallel narrative of Jews versus Aryans created the clash between Hitler's anti-Jewish socio-capitalist theory and the Jewish communist-materialist theory, represented at that time by Lenin.
Fortunately, the ideas of communist materialism did not succeed in engulfing 19th century Europe. Nevertheless, other philosophers emerged, aiming to elevate people's consciousness through their advocated viewpoints.
Far-leftist Criminals: The Philosophy of Communism
During his time in London, K. Marx (-1818) attended lectures on Darwinism, which focused on the theory of evolution. Following Darwinism’s cruelty and Hegel’s ideas on creating conflicts through the clash of the opposites he started to form his philosophy.
Marx used the tension arising from social divisions, drawing on Darwin's theory. According to this perspective, if those who possess power and dominate in the struggle for survival become naturally proud of their power, it follows that those on the lower end of the spectrum develop a profound hate towards those who surpass them. Expanding upon this hate forms the foundation of socialism.
He was not on a high opinion about democracy either: „The oppressed are allowed once every few years to decide which particular representatives of the oppressing class are to represent and repress them.” This approach implies that the ruling class should establish at least two political parties from behind the scenes, creating the illusion of opposition, and allowing people to vote for either party, even though both represent the same oppressive system.
As a follower of Hegel, Marx embraced the idea of excluding intuition and emphasizing intellectualization in understanding the world. He expanded upon this view by integrating the philosophies of Hegel and Feuerbach, resulting in a materialistic perspective that limited the scope of reality.
In addition to Hegel, Marx also drew inspiration from other philosophers, such as T. Hodgeskin (-1869). Hodgeskin was a prominent thinker who laid the groundwork for socialist ideas. Marx often quoted Hodgeskin, who was among the first to delve into concepts like the "natural or artificial right of property" and the "exploitation of labor."
F. Engels (-1895), hailing from a prosperous Lancashire (England) textile factory-owning family, provided financial support to Marx. Together they played a significant role in organizing the Social Democratic Workers' Party of Germany. Renting a house located in the old city center square of Brussels, they documented their communist ideas, which later evolved into the Communist Manifesto. In this way, Marx, with the assistance of the capitalist Engels, established an antithesis to the capitalist thesis, ensuring that both hands belonged to the same body.
At the end of the 19th century, the Social Democratic Workers' Party of Germany and Marx's ideas captured the interest of a young Russian student with Sabbatean beliefs, who was studying in Switzerland. V.I. Lenin (-1924), fluent in English and German, wholeheartedly embraced these ideas and effectively put them into practice in the Russian Revolution of the far-left Bolsheviks in 1917. To finance the Bolshevik Revolution, Lenin and his comrade L. Trotsky (-1940), who later established the Red Army, obtained loans from Kuhn, Loeb and Co. (New York), headed by Jacob Schiff. Schiff personally financed Trotsky's multiple trips to the United States.
Marx's ideas, potentially influenced by his Ashkenazi Sabbatean-Frankist background, provided a stark antithesis to the thesis of Hitler's ideology. The parallel narrative of Jews versus Aryans created the clash between Hitler's anti-Jewish socio-capitalist theory and the Jewish communist-materialist theory, represented at that time by Lenin.
Fortunately, the ideas of communist materialism did not succeed in engulfing 19th century Europe. Nevertheless, other philosophers emerged, aiming to elevate people's consciousness through their advocated viewpoints.
The Hand-Wrestling of Positivity and Usefulness
Briefly, a glimmer of enlightenment emerged in the realm of philosophy before the world spiraled towards the upheaval of World War I. The concepts of compassion and love once again resurfaced, regaining prominence in philosophical discourse.
J.C. Friedrich Schiller (-1805) added a distinct dimension to Kant's moral philosophy with his aesthetic declaration, "Good is Beautiful," which reinforced the trajectory towards positivity. Schiller played a pivotal role in encouraging J.W. von Goethe (-1832) to complete his unfinished writings, assuring him of their inherent value. Their collaboration led to the establishment of the Weimar Theater, marking the inception of what came to be known as Weimar Classicism. While Schiller delved into the realms of emotion, duty, and inclinations, Goethe expounded on intuition as a tool for understanding the inner motivations and "Typus" of individuals. Goethe's concept of "Typus" extends beyond mere intellectual archetypes (known as "archetypus" in German). According to Goethe, these are the essences of archetypal organisms that permeate all living beings. In this way, he laid the philosophical groundwork for organic science, emphasizing the central role of intuition in uncovering and understanding the inherent "Typus" or "Type" of a being. Goethe utilized intuition as a means to answer the question: "What is the inner nature of the Typus that manifests within this particular organism?" As a result, he advocated for the development of an "organ of intuition" to facilitate this process.
German philosophers exerted a significant influence on their American counterparts, as well. R.W. Emerson (-1882) brought the essence of positivity and optimism to the United States. Drawing inspiration from Kant's transcendentalist approach, which posits that there is more to the functioning of the mind than what is visible to the naked eye, Emerson turned it to a kind of meta-pantheistic perspective. According to this viewpoint, the universe is identical to divinity, and vice versa. In addition, Emerson asserted that divinity and goodness can be found in every minute aspect of nature simply because it exists. He argued that truth should not be sought from an external entity, such as a commanding or signaling God, but rather through intuition, by recognizing signs as reflections of nature. This raises the question: "If God is all-good and loves us unconditionally, why does Hell exist?" Nevertheless, Emerson encouraged individuals to intuitively perceive the goodness inherent in every tiny part of nature, and he believed that this intuition could guide one's focus towards personal growth and improvement. By promoting a German transcendentalism-based optimism, Emerson made a remarkable name in American philosophy.
Returning back to Europe we shall notably mention the French thinker, A. Comte (-1857), who also encouraged positive thinking. He coined the term "ethical altruism," encapsulating the concept of "living for others" with love as its fundamental bedrock. Comte not only advanced the study of interconnectedness among individuals and societal elements but also forged the discipline of sociology – a word formed by Comte -, employing the tools of empiricism and scientific inquiry.
Similaryly to what we are doing here in this book, Comte aspired to integrate philosophy, physics, and biology into a cohesive system.
A century before M. Csikszentmihalyi (-2021) and M. Seligman developed positive Psychology, as a secular humanist, Comte developed Positive Philosophy. He proposed a three-stage evolution of societies: 1) the religious stage, akin to childhood; 2) a metaphysical transitional stage, symbolizing adulthood; and 3) a positive stage, representing the attainment of wisdom. Comte's perspective illuminates the notion that personal growth and independent thinking require us to transcend our reliance on external authority, expanding our vision beyond the confines of our immediate surroundings. It is essential to perceive not only the tangible but also the transcendental, the quantum essence of our world. He emphasized that the pinnacle of our development is reached when we align both our judgements of perceptions and our inner intentions with positivity. Can there be a more compelling vision of an ideal world?
JS Mill (-1873), profoundly impacted by Comte's ideas, became an advocate of individual liberty triumphing over societal control. While Comte's philosophy did not emphasize individualism, it was this aspect of positivity that resonated most strongly with Mill. Mill's sentiments echoed Comte's positivism, as he argued that power should only be wielded justly to prevent harm to others. Mill's fundamental principle asserted that society's foremost aim should be to maximize overall happiness while minimizing suffering.
Mill's liberal perspective extended to his views on moral judgments as well. While Kantians deemed lying inherently immoral, Mill and his followers considered it morally acceptable if it was undertaken with the intention of avoiding harm. Similar to Kant, Mill believed in the importance of goodwill. However, whereas Kant viewed good action as a moral duty for all members of society, Mill regarded it as an individual's freely chosen option. According to Mill, the determination of what is right or wrong is a subjective measure. He asserted that individuals should assess it based on their own internal standards of judgment. This approach, coined as ethical intuitionism, formed the foundation of Mill's ethical framework.
Mill's work and activities suggest that his understanding of happiness encompassed a liberal aspect, wherein happiness meant having the freedom to pursue one's desires and preferences. However, it is important to note that Mill also advocated for utilitarianism, a philosophy developed by Bentham, which prioritizes the overall happiness of society over individual happiness. According to utilitarianism, the happiness of the collective takes precedence over that of the individual. Similarly, it posits that minimizing overall societal suffering is more important than reducing individual pain. The concept of usefulness, evaluated from a social perspective, determines the value and role of individuals within the social group. The leader of the social group holds authority and makes decisions based on the perceived usefulness of the members.
It is often overlooked that utilitarianism is distinct from democracy. Utilitarianism is primarily applicable in systems of direct leadership, where the leader's wisdom guides decisions for the benefit and happiness of the people. However, when in the wrong hands of an unwise leader, utilitarianism can have adverse effects.
When an ethical intuitionist leader, like the one Mill describes, assumes control and determines what is useful for the people, it is conceivable that they may choose to pursue population reduction instead of utilizing unoccupied lands or exploring other planets. They could even introduce a deadly virus or a gene-modifying vaccine that ultimately leads to significant depopulation over a span of 10 to 20 years. All this, because this seems ”useful for the planet”.
In everyday life, utilitarianism carries inherent dangers. Only in the presence of a selfless leader, one with genuine positive intentions, intuitive wisdom, and boundless compassion, who has been tested and earned the trust of the people, can utilitarianism potentially function as intended. In such a scenario, the leader takes into account and addresses the needs and concerns of both the society as a whole and the individuals within it. This can bring harmony and peace on all levels. Otherwise, utilitarianism risks devolving into a mere Darwinian game.
We discussed the meaning of "ethical" in Mill's ethical intuitionism. Now, let us dive into the concept of "intuitionism" and what it meant for him.
Under intuitionism, Mill referred to the ad-hoc choices individuals make based on what they feel is best for them. He used the term "intuition" to describe everyday feelings, such as deciding to choose dark chocolate over milk chocolate or feeling inclined to take a pen because one believes one may need it more than someone else. Mill's use of the word "intuition" was simple, akin to the word "feeling," expressed as "I have the feeling that..." or "I feel like..."
This usage of intuition differs significantly from the general understanding of intuition as a sudden, enlightening realization or information that emerges in conscious understanding. However, as a liberal thinker, Mill exercised his right to label these feelings as intuition.
H. Sidgwick (-1900) launched a scathing critique of both Bentham's utilitarianism and Mill's ethical intuitionism, labeling the former as "psychological hedonism" or "universal hedonism" and the latter as "ethical hedonism" or "egoistic hedonism." He argued that a middle ground needed to be found, a solution that could reconcile the two opposing views for an optimal outcome.
Alongside his critique and exploration of philosophical theories, Sidgwick also displayed a keen interest in delving into the depths of consciousness and the workings of the mind. Driven by his insatiable curiosity, Sidgwick took a notable step in his pursuit of understanding the mysteries of the human experience by establishing the Sidgwick Group. This collective of like-minded individuals delved into the field of parapsychology, exploring phenomena that went beyond the boundaries of conventional scientific inquiry.
Expanding and Enriching Western Thought: The Influence of Eastern Philosophy
Civilized discourse can truly flourish when we establish a shared understanding that emphasizes the importance of positivity and the well-being of all individuals and societies. Whether this occurs within a conservative framework with rules and regulations or a more liberal context that prioritizes individual freedoms, the fundamental principle remains the same. Both society and individual lives should strive toward positivity and engage in actions that benefit the collective. But what does it mean to benefit others? It encompasses the holistic well-being of all beings, encompassing physical, social, and mental dimensions.
This principle holds true not only in Western society but also in Eastern cultures. In fact, there have been instances where Buddhist masters refrained from teaching individuals if their motivation was solely self-centered, lacking the intention to benefit all sentient beings. This emphasis on self-responsibility and the understanding of causality compelled individuals to recognize that their current life's challenges might stem from past unvirtuous behavior. In order to improve their individual circumstances, they were encouraged to cultivate thoughts, speech, and actions that were beneficial to others. With their own well-being in mind, they were compelled to prioritize the needs of others. Given this foundation, it is unsurprising that Western society has much to gain from the East. Consequently, many philosophers have sought inspiration from both Hinduism and Buddhism, recognizing their invaluable insights and teachings.
The French indologist E. Burnouf (-1852) made a significant contribution by translating Hindu texts like the Bhagavata Purana and Buddhist sutras, such as the Lotus Sutra, making them accessible to the Western world. These texts introduced concepts that fascinated the West, including the mystical powers of an enlightened being (we call a Buddha), who possessed intuitive knowledge of space and time.
Similarily inspired by the teachings of the translated Bhagavad Gita, H.D. Thoreau (-1862), a fellow transcendentalist and contemporary of RW Emerson, further explored the concept of individual responsibility in decision-making. In his influential work "Civil Disobedience," Thoreau famously stated, "That government is best which governs least," and even went so far as to propose that a government should ideally not govern at all.Hindus, driven by their individualist spirit that aims for avoiding bad karma and generating good karma are inclined to fight for the good and the truth. Thus, it is not surprizing, that M. Gandhi (-1948) drew profound inspiration from Thoreau's concept of civil disobedience.
Continuing the legacy initiated by Burnouf, F.M. Müller (1900), a German-British philologist and orientalist, made significant contributions to the field of scientific translations. Moreover, he played a pivotal role in establishing the academic disciplines of Indian and religious studies.Müller's renowned publication series, the "Sacred Books of the East," comprised 50 volumes including Hindu and Buddhist texts edited by him and published by Oxford University Press.
Müller also explored the linguistic origins of Indo-European deities, tracing the term "Dyaus" back to the meaning of a ”radiating, shining one”, which gave rise to words like "deus," "deva," and "theos." The expression of the "light bearer" or "Lux ferre," or Lucifer carries the same meaning. Today, it is becoming a common knowledge, the we can trace the origins of the Greek god Zeus to the Egyptian deity Sobek, who was Akhenaten's reptile-like god. Sobek, in turn, can be linked to the Mesopotamian/Sumerian winged dragon-like god Enki. Therefore, it is not surprising that Müller expressed admiration for Zoroastrians, who preserved the ancient Sumerian knowledge, and his dislike towards Jesuits, who fought for the influence of a religion that originated from Sumerian roots.
Nevertheless, his greatest contribution was bringing a substantial weight of Eastern literature to the West in a translated and accessible format.
When one possesses literacy, the exploration of philosophical ideas becomes possible. By the time of G.I. Gurdjieff (-1949) significant number of Eastern literature was avaiable in the West. Gurdjieff seized the opportunity to deepen his understanding by immersing himself particulariry in Buddhist texts. In his quest, he ventured beyond moral debates and delved into the essence of consciousness—the very awareness that permeates our being. Gurdjieff formulated the concept of "the work," a transformative process aimed at rousing individuals from their state of "waking sleep." Through the establishment of the Institute for the Harmonious Development of Man in southern Paris, he shared a multitude of suggestions and methodologies for both individual and group work.
Among the diverse group of philosophers, some engaged in reading and translating, others in contemplation, and a few even ventured to explore practices that expand the horizons of the mind. R.M. Bucke (-1902), a Canadian psychiatrist, belonged to the latter category. He embraced a Hindu-pantheist approach, emphasizing the individual's responsibility aligning with universal truth. Influenced by his travels in the East, he adopted the term "Cosmic Consciousness" as the title of his book. In it, he shares his own meditative experiences and insights on consciousness gained from his time in the East. Bucke affirms, "I did not come to believe: I saw and knew that the Cosmos is not dead matter but a living Presence, ... all things work together for the good of each and all, that the foundation principle of the world is what we call love, and that the happiness of everyone in the long run is absolutely certain." He describes his own "aha-experience" as an elevated state of awareness, inner illumination, or inner light. Bucke hypothesized that this cosmic consciousness would progressively manifest on a larger scale in the future, uplifting the consciousness of humanity to a cosmic level.
The Sober Pragmatism: A Journey in the Opposite Direction that Finally Leads Back to the Nature of Mind
In the USA, Bucke's idealistic method of elevating consciousness through self-exploration faced direct opposition from pragmatists, who advocated for a completely contrasting perspective. This shift redirected the attention of consciousness from internal introspection to external engagement, favoring practical and materialistic inclinations. Remarkably, this pragmatic observation leads to the acknowledgment of the paramount significance of awareness and the profound impact of immersing oneself in the essence of the mind, that brings about intuition. One can only wish and hope that the communist-materialists would have reached a similar conclusion. Unfortunately, that was not the case.
In the early days of the pragmatist movement, the esteemed Harvard psychologist William James (-1910) embraced a partially pragmatic perspective. He delved into the concept of monism, proposing that both mind and matter could originate from a higher, all-encompassing entity. James introduced the term "mind-stuff" to describe two distinct states of mind: the objective state, which evokes a sense of relaxation, and the subjective state, which involves heightened molecular changes like hormone release.
According to James, „Consciousness, [...] ’corresponds’ to the entire activity of the brain” (WJTPP), implying that while the mind and brain are distinct, they are intricately interconnected. In his quest for understanding reality, James identified a link between consciousness and the relationship with the brain. „He writes: ”a shock in consciousness and a molecular motion are the subjective and objective faces of the same thing” further asserting that „The sense of our own personal identity, then, is exactly like any one of our other perceptions of sameness among phenomena.”(WJTPP)
Through this perspective, James formulated a connection between the source of consciousness and matter, as well as between the concept of self-consciousness (or self-identity) and the thoughts that arise during the perception of external phenomena.
He stated that both are merely thoughts. Every thought that arises within our consciousness, is fundamentally nothing more than a thought. These thoughts, be they inspired from within or influenced by external stimuli, stem from the same source, consciousness itself.
Similarly, when we contemplate notions of an "I" or a "me," we must recognize that such thoughts are only constructs of consciousness. Moreover, they constitute merely one facet within the expansive tapestry of totality, encompassing various acts and representations that we commonly call appearances.
Furthermore, James expounded on the idea that attention, or rather awareness as the author prefers to articulate, can be directed both inward and outward, while still constituting "mere awareness." In James' conviction, inner recognitions, intuition, and telepathy retained their significance. Notably, James emerged as a founder of The American Society for Psychical Research (ASPR), which pioneered parapsychology investigations. James primarily intended his pragmatism to furnish scientific and biological evidence concerning the functioning of consciousness.
By integrating the notion that the perception of a subject and an object is merely a thought and coupling it with the ability of consciousness to possess intuitive insight, James expands on the interconnectedness of the subject, object, and the act of perception in his paper "Does 'Consciousness' Exist?" He elucidates that the knower and the thing known are inseparable components of a unified reality, akin to two sides of a flipped coin.
James emphasized the importance of understanding the triangle of perception. The first corner represents the thoughts or ideas about subjects or objects that arise in our consciousness or are perceived through our senses. The second corner signifies their impermanent and ever-changing nature. And the third corner points to a non-thing-like awareness that experiences this interplay.
In simpler terms, we can think of it in the context of movement. In an ideal space-like vacuum, there is no movement. However, suddenly, virtual particles or protons appear, which we can consider as appearances. They immediately start moving, resulting in a continuous flux of change. All of this occurs within a three-dimensional framework. Simultaneously, as we become familiar with and grasp the nature of the mind, which extends at least four-dimensionally, our awareness can observe any three-dimensional appearance, change, and disappearance.
Thus, we can consider these three points (space-awareness, appearance/ disappearance, and the change in between) as the fundamental aspects of reality. Becoming attached to appearances is irrational because every appearance is followed by dissolution. Becoming attached to dissolution is also unreasonable since every dissolution is followed by appearances. Becoming attached to the flux or play of appearance and disappearance is likewise unreasonable because there is a space-like awareness, in which everything unfolds.
Forgetting the space-awareness aspect leads to egotism, such as the belief in one's own superiority or importance („I am real”, „I am big”, „I am smart”, „I am healthy”, „I am powerful”, „I am famous”, „I am rich”). This is not wise because it neglects the understanding that we all possess a space-like nature of mind that manifests everything. We all have the potential to be smart, healthy, powerful, famous, or rich, as we can manifest these qualities. We just need to understand the rules of manifestation, which involve the nature of appearance, change, and ultimately dissolution, driven by impression-vectors known as cause and effect.
James was aware of these principles, and he spoke about an objective subconscious that lies beneath subjective consciousness, storing mental imprints like a fertile ground that holds both positive and negative seeds, which eventually ripen in due time.
James also emphysized the pragmatic application of awareness, which perceives this ever-changing reality, is not limited to the brain's cognitive processes of categorization and conceptualization. Instead, it possesses the remarkable ability to intuitively grasp and apprehend things, to see ”throught things” or behind habitually perceived representations of space. William James refers to this direct apprehension as "pure experience," while the more general level of conscious awareness he terms "being conscious." In order to facilitate this pure experience of intuitive insight, James skillfully elucidates and dispels the conceptual clouds that occasionally obscure the radiant sun, allowing the intuitive wisdom of direct perception to shine through more effortlessly.
James’ approach is called ’neutral monism’. Monism, as aware consciousness penetrates, shows, manifests everything and neutral, as it is not a thing.
Nevertheless, James’ thoughs sound just like he had been studying Buddhism.Such a profound observation regarding the nature of thoughts, change, cause and effect, awareness, intuition, and the concept of non-duality would be highly relevant and perfectly fitting within the advanced teachings of Buddhist Vajrayana (Dzogchen and Mahamudra) teachings. Buddhists can indeed be viewed through the lens of pragmatism, as they actively participate in meditative practices and diligently observe the tangible outcomes of their endeavors. Simultaneously, they embody a perspective of neutral monism, asserting that the mind of each individual is akin to expansive space-like awareness. In this understanding, both the external world and the subjective experience are recognized as mere manifestations and expressions arising within this boundless space of mind.
In his paper "The Will to Believe," James famously stated, "It is wrong always, everywhere, and for everyone, to believe anything upon insufficient evidence." This profound statement left a significant impact on the German-British philosopher FCS Schiller (-1937).
Schiller shared James' scientific approach, which emphasized the correlation between mental states and brain states. However, Schiller placed great importance on factuality, evidence, and the biological aspect. He criticized notions of the "unobjectifiable" and idealism, considering them useless and impractical.
Schiller, as the founder of the British Eugenics Society, delved into the study and biological experiments associated with Darwinism, the institution in which Darwin's son and grandson also took presidential roles.
However, Schiller also explored an alternative perspective known as humanism. He criticized metaphysics for occasionally losing grounds and condemned naturalism (positivism) for becoming overly materialistic and disregarding the non-physical, experience-based expressions of the human mind. It was these issues with both concepts that led Schiller to adopt skepticism, a philosophy with roots in both Western philosophy (Xenophanes) and Eastern philosophy (Sakyamuni Buddha and later Nagarjuna).
According to this philosophy, things exist as their constituent elements spontaneously emerge from space, but ultimately, things do not exist as these elemental particles eventually dissolve back into space. Also, we can not claim that neither appearance or space-nature is true (we can not assert that they are both wrong) because their interconnectedness is the nature of things. Likewise, we cannot affirm the simultaneous truth of both, as the (at least) four-dimensional mind transcends the boundaries of confinement, definition, and comprehension through three-dimensional concepts.
Despite his devout faith in God, Schiller internalized this notion, recognizing its profound resonance with the essence of the Heart Sutra ("Form is emptiness, emptiness is form, form and emptiness are inseparable"). He also discovered harmony with the four fundamental principles of Nagarjuna's Madyamaka Buddhist philosophy, which serve as the bedrock of his comprehension.
C.S. Peirce (-1914), along with William James, is recognized as one of the founding fathers of pragmatism. As a mathematician by profession, extensively explored the concept of "how we make our ideas clear." He placed great importance on understanding the vector-direction and action-momentum inherent in ideas. According to Peirce, objects, even in our subjective conceptions, served no purpose other than being practical or useful to us. He only regarded ideas as genuine beliefs if they prompted action in individuals. Consequently, he asserted that there is no inherent power in intuition, dismissing the notion of introspection. In his perspective, human qualities were diminished, akin to being washed away in the metaphorical washroom, while the qualities of „factory robots” took remained.
Peirce was the one who formulated the fundamental thesis of the pragmatic concept as follows: "Consider the practical effects of the objects you conceive. Your conception of those effects constitutes your entire conception of the object."
Let's consider an example to explore the implications of pragmatism. According to the pragmatic perspective, which prioritizes practicality and usefulness, how should a man approach the situation when he encounters an attractive woman? Pragmatism suggests that only practical considerations hold significance, dismissing other thoughts as unimportant. Therefore, if the man were to entertain thoughts or intuitively feel that the woman would appreciate receiving a flower bouquet and this would make her happy, pragmatism would deem such thoughts as useless.
Pragmatism often challenged absolute idealism by urging individuals to "come back to earth" and focus on practical, tangible matters.
Pragmatism manifests as a fervent obsession with "doing," akin to being an action-maniac. While this inclination towards action holds potential, it lacks the profound wisdom of a space-like perspective. In the realm of pragmatism, is a kind of materialis, in which the weight is heavily skewed towards material objects and tangible outcomes, leaving no room for relaxation, the space between thoughts, or the recognition of the deeper essence or the ”meaning” beyond appearances. Pragmatism can also be likened to the frenzied actions of berserkers in Nordic mythologies. Taking a broader perspective, we can describe pragmatism as a fervent fixation on the constant flow of appearances and their eventual dissolution. It hinders the cultivation of a space-like awareness that allows for the pure enjoyment of whatever emerges or dissolves within the vast expanse of existence.
Peirce would have been better off remaining focused on his profession as a mathematician, taking action with his compass and ruler.
J. Dewey (-1952) played a pivotal role in refining pragmatism by incorporating elements of idealism and emphasizing its humanistic aspects.
As one of the founding members and later the president of the American Psychological Association (APA), Dewey sought to strike a balance between the practicality of pragmatism and the ideals of idealism.
Dewey, characterized by a greater emphasis on human emotions and values compared to Peirce, endeavored to preserve the practical value of pragmatism while seeking to synthesize it with idealism, to forge a path that also acknowledged the human element. While Peirce took an Hegelian stance (antithesis) against idealism (the thesis), Dewey sought to discover a synthesis between pragmatism and idealism.
Dewey initially introduced instrumentalism as his approach, highlighting the significance of practical tools or instruments that can be utilized for meaningful purposes, while he also emphasized the human perspective of the individual who applies these tools. Instrumentalism laid the foundation for the emergence of functional psychology, which sought to understand the adaptive nature of human cognition and behavior.
Later, Dewey referred to his approach as consequentialism, which introduced the concept of causality into his philosophical framework. Consequentialism emphasized the importance of understanding the causal relationships between actions, experiences, and their outcomes. While remaining grounded in the practical actions and experiences, consequentialism aimed to utilize the knowledge gained from this flux to predict both the originating reasons and the consequences of these actions. By considering the cause-and-effect dynamics at play, Dewey sought to develop a more comprehensive understanding of how our actions and experiences shape the world around us. The principle of offering potential outcomes as options for individuals to select became a cornerstone of libertarianism.
Dewey also expanded upon James' pragmatic view of thoughts and asserted that thinking occurs primarily when we are confronted with worldly problems. Thus, the brain is just a tool of outer (worldly) operation of consciousness. Dewey also agreed, that the function of the brain is essentially to serve as a tool for the external operation of consciousness in engaging with the world.
Dewey’s contemporary, G Santayana (-1952), a Spanish-American philosopher, drew inspiration primarily from the natural sciences and particularly from Darwin's theory of evolution. Santayana's perspective on the evolution of human senses led him to the belief that the senses of "inferior races" had already reached their peak development and should be accepted without question, simply utilized as they are. The reference to Darwin's name may immediately raise concerns about Santayana. He held the belief that the sensory capacities of "inferior races" had already reached their pinnacle of development, suggesting that there was no necessity to question or scrutinize them, but rather to simply utilize them. He proposed that these races should not engage in intermarriage with what he considered to be "inferior stock." Although he did not consider himself a pragmatist, his work "The Life of Reason" made a significant contribution to the development of pragmatism.
In contrast to Peirce, the Austrian physicist and philosopher E. Mach (-1916) was a staunch positivist who held the belief that all knowledge could be acquired through sensory experience. Consequently, he rejected metaphysics, introspection, and intuition. However, he did offer a defense of phenomenalism against Peirce's pragmatism. As a physicist, he developed "Machian physics," which prioritized the concepts of space and time over the relative flux of objects and motion. His aim was to analyze the nature of reality from a physical standpoint, recognizing that phenomena emerge and disappear within the framework of spacetime (which can be likened to space-like awareness). Therefore, in his view, motion (including its pragmatic usefulness) was considered secondary to the unchanging element: aware space.
Mach's ideas would have taken a fascinating turn had he been born later to delve into the realm of quantum physics. He could have come to the practical realization that the mind has the ability to influence appearances, and that the information orchestrating this process transcends spatial distances, extending infinitely.
The British idealist philosopher F.H. Bradley (-1924) may not have been a physicist like Mach, but his ideas shared some parallels with Mach's philosophy. Bradley rejected the notion that things (things-in-themselves) can exist independently of our knowledge about them. He emphasized the importance of human action, asserting that the means we employ are significant in our pursuit of happiness. In a metaphorical sense, with a single swing of a sword, he put Machiavelli's philosophy on his knees.
Going even deeper, Bradley formulated the idea that truth should encompass the entirety of reality, the full spectrum of existence, leaving nothing out. This means that truth must encompass both logic and intuition, matter and space, and even the existence of both evil and good.
In his philosophy, Bradley aligns with Mach's physics and James’s philosophy, by asserting that plurality appears within the absolute, or in other words, the absolute continuously manifests plurality. The absolute, in this context, corresponds to Mach's concept of space, while plurality refers to phenomena. Bradley goes on to explain that from the absolute perspective, distinctions between good and bad, moral actions, darkness or brightness, the formation or dissolution of matter, or any other forms of movement or existence, are ultimately insignificant. According to him, what truly matters is that behind all manifestations, the absolute space is always pregnant with possibilities. It engages in a cosmic free play, giving rise to and dissolving universes, parallel universes, multiverses, realms of suffering, ghosts, animals, humans, and any conceivable beings, including demi-gods and gods. From the absolute perspective, Bradley suggests that distinctions between good and bad, moral actions, darkness or brightness, the formation or dissolution of matter, or any other manifestations or properties lack lasting essence. In this view, nothing truly exists in an enduring and independent manner, and therefore, nothing holds inherent significance. According to him, what truly matters is that behind all manifestations, the absolute space is always pregnant with possibilities.
From the perspective of our daily experiences, all phenomena have significance, and the principle of cause and effect governs our world. In this relative level of experience, everything matters and carries weight. However, when we consider an absolute or four-dimensional point of view, we can see that reality is akin to a free play, where the interplay of forces and phenomena is like a drawing being created on a two-dimensional surface by three-dimensional beings.
From an absolute perspective, the spontaneous free play of the limitless space and the spontaneous flux within it holds significance.
Space encompasses the ever-changing flux of phenomena within it, and within this dynamic interplay, the absolute truth encompasses the relative truth. This means that we simultaneously have two truths that are valid and applicable within their respective contexts.
A common mistake often occurs in human communication when individuals approach relative matters from an absolute standpoint. For example, saying, "Putting a kilogram of salt in the soup is just a play of space, anyway," or "I don't care about my boss's requests, it's all space, anyway." This approach fails to acknowledge the distinct contexts of both relative and absolute truths.
In the realm of relative truth, matters of good and bad, positive or negative, cause and effect, and the interplay of energy vectors and charges hold significance.
Conversely, in the realm of absolute truth, the concept of significance itself becomes irrelevant. In our daily lives, we rely on relative truth to navigate our experiences, while in our meditation practice, we apply the absolute truth. We treat both truths with reverence, understanding that they are integral aspects of the same unified reality.
Ideally, we engage with the absolute truth to transcend mundane concerns, while simultaneously utilizing the practicality of relative truth in our daily actions. Like a skilled chef tending to a simmering soup, we find balance by keeping our feet firmly planted on the ground while in our minds exploring the expansive realms of absolute truth.
Bradley's depiction of the absolute state of mind was more intricate compared to that of FWJ Schelling or Schleiermacher. At the same time, it may possibly drew inspiration from Mach's physics and James's philosophy, which led to a secular and scientific approach.
Unveiling Satanist/Egotist Philosophy: Hidden Influences of the 20th Century
Talking about Satanism, it is essential to understand who or what the entity we call Satan is. In simple terms, we can trace back to the Sumerian god Enki and his brother Enlil. According to the Enki Speaks portal, Enki was referred to as Lucifer in Christian theology. He had a son, called Marduk, who was also referred to as the "Viceroy on Earth”. His symbol, a snake-dragon (mušḫuššu), is showcased at the Detroit Institute of Arts. Another symbol associated with Marduk is a triangle atop various representations, such as a stone sculpture (kudurru) found in the British Museum. This figure, Marduk, is identified as Satan. Additionally, Marduk is connected to other names like Toth in Egypt and the man-eating dragon Quetzalcoatl, which is visible on the Alfa Romeo badge. The Canaanite deity known as Baal, worshiped by the Khazarian Khan Bulan, is also associated with Marduk.
From a Christian perspective, anything that opposes or contradicts the Ten Commandments of Moses is considered satanic or representations of Satan. Since Sabbatai Zevi's "ideology" revolved around acting contrary to Moses's commandments, Sabbateanism can also be referred to as Satanism.
In general, satanic teachings do not condemn blood sacrifice for their God, they promote egotism with the motto "do what thou wilt" and endorse the Darwinian principle of "the strongest shall survive." This leads people to become ruthless, shameless, and extreme. In summary, they pursue a draconian agenda.
FW Nietzsche (-1900) aimed to promote the growth of the individualistic spirit and inspire its development towards perfection, symbolized by the Übermensch (Over-man, or Higher-man or Superman).
However, it is worth noting that Nietzsche himself held unconventional beliefs, including his association with Satanism during his youth, particularly the Magis’ cult of Mithra. Interestingly, it is worth mentioning that both A. Hitler (-1945?) and H. Göring (-1946) were also associated with this cult. Nietzsche's troubled upbringing may have contributed to his inclination towards Satanism. As a consequence, the concept of the superhuman Nietzsche developed portrayed an individual who was not particularly pleasant to be around socially. Instead, this idealized figure was characterized by immense pride and an inflated ego. Nietzsche famously declared, "If there were Gods, how could I endure not being God! Therefore, there are no Gods." He was an advocate of the Anti-Christ cult. Additionally, he prophesied the arrival of a New Age in which his ideas would flourish. It is possible that Nietzsche may have been aware of the plans proposed by proponents of the New World Order.
While Nietzche supported intuitionism, he approached it from an egoistic perspective. His aim was to liberate individuals from religious and moral dogmas, advocating instead that through our "intuition" (which could be better described as a feeling), we possess the knowledge of what is best for ourselves. Nietzsche's concept of the "will to power" also suggested that those who possess power have the authority to fulfill their desires. Embracing this idea, he expressed his aspiration to become the "Anti-Buddha" in Europe, highlighting his contrasting philosophy with that of Buddhism.
While Nietzsche did not support or endorse Hitler's movement, it is true that Hitler incorporated certain ideas from Nietzsche into his ideology. Examples of these include Nietzsche's statements such as "Brutality is respectful... Terrorism is absolutely indispensable in every case of the founding of a new power," "a culture [must] encourage not equality but greatness," and the idea to “create conditions that require stronger men.”
Nevertheless, the two of Nietzsche's most famous aphorisms are "That which does not kill us makes us stronger" and "He who fights with monsters might take care lest he thereby become a monster."
Readers who are familiar with the previous article in this series on the sociological aspects of intuition may indeed make the association that Nietzsche's thought patterns align with a dark red approach in the context of spiral dynamics. This particular approach is characterized by egoistic supremacy and a tendency towards rule through suppressive physical powers. Satanism represents the same memetics.
It is noteworthy that Aleister Crowley (-1947) openly embraced Nietzsche's New Age movement. Crowley, regarded as a prominent figure in Satanism, made significant changes to the higher levels of Freemasonry to align it with Satanist objectives. Additionally, he founded the controversial organization known as O.T.O. (Ordo Templi Orientis) that is a ”religious” but rather blasphomous organisation that uses Sex Magick (or Sex Magic). On the Wikipedia page dedicated to Sex Magic, it is described that O.T.O. members who have reached the eighth degree engage in group masturbation, while those on the ninth degree partake in heterosexual intercourse. Furthermore, the eleventh degree involves anal sexual practices with each other in their closed room of the Church. Crowley promoted, that sexual practices done with a meditative approach can enfold certain inner qualities as intuition.
Although the Wikipedia page for O.T.O. has been altered, the original information clearly revealed its true nature. O.T.O. is now presented in it as a preparatory institution for the Illuminati. Interestingly, The Beatles had Crowley on they album cover, and also Led Zeppelin’s Jimi Page was initiated to the OTO. The organization also adopts the Thelemic logo, and its Thelemic philosophy has influenced renowned artists such as Jim Morrison, David Bowie, Madonna, Beyoncé, Kanye West, and many others.
L. Ron Hubbard, the founder of Scientology, had a connection to Aleister Crowley and his teachings. Hubbard was indeed a member of the Ordo Templi Orientis (OTO) and sought advice from Crowley during their correspondence. Some sources suggest a deeper relationship, claiming that Hubbard may have been Crowley's son, conceived during a Sex Magick ritual.
Hubbard went on to develop his own system of trauma-transformation called Dianetics, which forms the foundation of Scientology. The goal of Scientology is to achieve a state of "Clear" by resolving past traumas and freeing oneself from their negative effects. In Scientology, there is no worship of any deity, including God or Satan. Instead, the focus is on the individual's inner capabilities and harnessing the power of the human consciousness.
According to Scientology, the brain (or scientific thought) is seen as the ultimate controller of life. Scientologists value logic and statistics, considering anything illogical or unsupported by data to be useless or unworthy of pursuit. Hubbard designed Scientology to create "Wise" companies that apply the principles of Scientology in their operations.
In promoting intuition, Scientology shares similarities with the approach of Rudolf Steiner (-1925) who also emphasized clearing the consciousness from traumas to allow clearer representation of inner intuitions. However, a challenge arises when the concept of an existing and controlling ego dominates, as it obstructs the true nature of the mind, limiting perception to the waves of consciousness.
Nevertheless, regardless of one's moral alignment or level of wisdom, everyone seeks intuition. However, forcefully pursuing intuition must be recognized as futile. Intuition is likened to a kind lady who responds favorably when one allows her to flow freely without the ego's controlling or directing influence. On the other hand, attempting to manipulate intuition through dark rituals or blackmail will lead to her withdrawal or even calling for the police.
The Mastery of Thought and the Uncontrollable Subconscious in the Early 20th Century
The renowned Austrian philosopher RJL Steiner (-1925) drew significant inspiration from the works of JW Goethe, who emphasized the importance of intuition in understanding the biological archetypes of individuals, which he referred to as "The Typus." Building upon Goethe's ideas, Steiner explored the power of thinking as a means to access and recognize intuitive impulses. However, despite their groundbreaking contributions to opening up society to the realm of intuition, both Goethe and Steiner maintained a firm belief in the existence of a God, which limited their understanding of the limitless space-nature of the mind. Within this philosophical framework, the existence of God implies the real existence of those who perceive, serve, or were created by him. This realization gives rise to a genuine duality where the world and all its suffering are experienced as profoundly real. As the ego's illusory veil thickens, it increasingly obstructs the radiant light of intuition.
It is important to note that Steiner, influenced by Nietzsche's concept of the Übermensch, further emphasized the idea of the ”individual's journey towards development”. The concept of egotism continued to expand.
In his quest for Gnostic knowledge, Steiner integrated Rosicrucian practices into the Freemasonic lodge under his leadership. Moreover, Steiner played a pivotal role in the founding of the Theosophical Society, a movement that sought to uncover universal wisdom through the exploration of various spiritual traditions. The expansive exploration of the Anthroposophical movement eventually encountered challenges due to its wide-ranging nature and integrative aims. The movement fell onto its noble nose. The Theosophical Society, split into two organizations due to the influence of J Krishnamurti (-1986) and his Hindu/Vedic thought, as well as his aspirations for messianic leadership. Steiner's new organization, the Anthroposophical Society, emerged from this division.
One of Steiner's notable contributions was the establishment of the Waldorf school system, which provided children with a liberal and holistic approach to learning. He also founded the School of Spiritual Science, which aimed to cultivate clairvoyance through various meditative practices. Steiner outlined three developmental phases in this pursuit: 1) imaginative cognition, 2) inspiration, and 3) intuition.
A Meinong (-1920) shared a similar perspective with Steiner regarding the meaning of thoughts. He referred to all thoughts as "objects," which acknowledged the legitimacy of intuitive impulses expressed through thoughts. Meinong also conducted analysis and exploration of intuition-based thoughts.
In the realm of thoughts and the depths of consciousness, two influential figures who made notable contributions to both philosophy and psychology are SS Freud (-1939) and CG Jung (-1961). While their work primarily focused on psychology, we will discover the significance of their contributions to the philosophy of intuition as well.
While both Freud and Jung made significant contributions, their perspectives on the nature of thoughts and consciousness differed greatly. In simple terms, Freud’s thoughts were sick, Jung’s thoughts were healthy.
Freud, born into an Ashkenazi family in Austria, managed to escape to the United Kingdom in 1938 to evade the horrors of Hitler. Supposedly influenced by Sabbatian-Frankism, he centered his psychoanalytical theory around the controversial Oedipus complex, positing that boys fear castration and feel inferior to their fathers, leading to a desire for their mothers, while girls experience penis envy and feel inferior to their mothers, desiring their fathers.
Such generalizations are, to put it politely, sick. Additionally, Freud's assertion regarding the Oedipus complex can be seen as contributing to the promotion of pedophilia within the context of Sabbatian-Frankism by providing a seemingly acceptable rationale.It is worth noting that the term "pedophilia," viewed from an adult perspective, and the concept of the "Oedipus complex," described from a child's viewpoint, essentially refer to the same underlying phenomenon. Freud was most probably a pedophile. His assumed affiliation with Sabbatian-Frankism, which bears similarities to Satanism, offers an explanation for his emphasis on sexuality and the potential for the exaltation of sex and ego.
According to Freud, the ego is the visible self-identification that everyone presents to the world, while beneath it lies the instinctual ID, which strives to maximize sexual desires and pleasure. In his system, these two aspects are siblings to the super-ego (über-ich), which embodies societal norms, morality, and ideas of self-improvement, serving as our conscience inherited from parents and society. While the über-ich (or "over-I" or superior I) bears similarities to Nietzsche's übermensch (or over-man), the über-ich is characterized by a greater level of focus, sharpness, and egotism compared to the übermensch. Discussing oneself in terms of "me, me, me" is inherently more egotistical than speaking in broader terms of "man, men, humanity, people."
Freud associates the subconscious with our instincts, suggesting that the power of consciousness constantly seeks to bring forth sexual thoughts that compel us toward sexual actions. Our ongoing efforts involve repressing instincts, navigating inner conflicts, and managing neurotic symptoms, as evidenced by slips of the tongue. This process leads to the censoring of thoughts, which further reinforces our instincts.
Freud's hinted solution is to embrace the expression of our instincts—to allow them to manifest freely. This entails allowing the emergence of sexual instincts, the expression of anger and aggression, the acknowledgment of self-harm tendencies, and the flourishing of egotism.
Indeed, keen readers will find it intriguing to consider the implications of Freud's perspective. As we delve into the content of the previous article, "Intuition in Biology," we learn that our thoughts and actions reinforce specific neural pathways in the brain. By living out our instincts, we inadvertently strengthen them further. Consequently, this approach diverts our attention from the "human brain," specifically the neocortex, which is responsible for logical thinking and decision-making. Instead, it places emphasis on the limbic system, often referred to as the "mammalian brain," associated with mammalian instincts, as well as the "reptilian brain," which encompasses the brain stem and governs instinctual drives and movements. Freud suggested that instead of being conscious human beings capable of governing our instincts and emotions with our human brain, we should instead prioritize and reinforce our animalistic feelings and habits akin to instinctual behavior.
While Jung initially studied under Freud, he eventually diverged from Freud's ideas and offered a different perspective, providing a valuable balance and offering alternative viewpoints to Freud’s akward thinking.
Jung, initially seen by Freud as his potential successor and appointed as President of the International Psychoanalytical Association, eventually diverged from Freud's thinking and developed his own approach called analytical psychology, which he distinguished as a distinct method separate from Freud's psychoanalysis.
During his extensive career as a psychologist, Jung identified and defined twelve archetypes, representing distinct patterns of behavior and ways of conducting life. However, he delved deeper and recognized that these visible behavioral types merely scratch the surface, as there exists a profound underlying reason behind them—people's subconscious. According to Jung, individuals act approximately 98 percent of the time driven by the impulses of their subconscious, while only about 2 percent is influenced by aware and objective decision-making.
According to Jung, the subconscious mind serves as a reservoir that stores all past mental impressions of thoughts, speech, and actions. These impressions are akin to seeds planted in fertile soil, where they interconnect and mature together with similar seeds until they blossom into tangible results. Jung asserts that the law of cause and effect governs this process: if we sow positive and benevolent seeds, we will reap positive and benevolent outcomes; if we sow negative seeds, we will experience negative consequences. Therefore, if we aspire to lead a joyful and fulfilling life, it is crucial to cultivate pleasant and harmonious thoughts, speech, and actions in our interactions with others and ourselves.
Jung observed a profound interconnected layer within subconscious of beings, he called the collective subconscious This phenomenon can be best illustrated by the example of monkeys washing potatoes, as mentioned earlier in this article series. On a remote island, one monkey discovers the technique of washing potatoes in water, and soon, other monkeys learn and replicate this behavior. Remarkably, even monkeys on a completely different and unconnected island begin washing potatoes. This exemplifies how thought patterns, speech patterns, and mode-forms of action can swiftly propagate among humanity, transcending geographical boundaries. Jung referred to this collective unconscious as being the facilitator of the distribution of information primarily among beings of the same species. While our individual subconscious constantly generates impulses in the form of individual mental and habitual patterns, the impulses stemming from the deeper-lying collective unconscious manifest as intuitive hints, ideas, and insights that reach us.
While these collective subconscious hints, or subconscious intuitions try to ”reach the surface”, they have to pass two layers or veils. The socio-cultural habitual patters and seeded impressions of the subconsciousness and the higher layer of feelings and thoughts formed in the brain till they become transformed to action. Jung did his best with analytical psychology, but could only reach the upper layer of complex behaviour patterns based on feelings and thoughts. The analytical capabilities of the brain and the magneto-electric tendencies and form-impressions of the subconscious are two separate entities. It is not possible to directly observe the contents of our subconscious by introspection alone. Instead, we can assess the state of our subconscious by examining our life and surroundings, and by considering the opinion of our life partner. Are our experiences favorable? Is our environment conducive to our well-being? When everything appears harmonious and positive, it indicates that our subconscious is predominantly filled with positive impressions.
In his quest to explore and uncover the contents of the subconscious, Jung experimented with methods such as drawing and painting to give life to subconscious patterns, as demonstrated in his renowned work "The Red Book." However, he faced a challenge in finding a method to purify or eliminate uncomfortable or negative subconscious impressions that could potentially mature and manifest as hidden explosives. While Jung could categorize the fully grown plants with his twelve archetypes and explain the subconscious impressions that may have sown their seeds, he did not develop specific techniques to unearth the roots. His focus primarily revolved around understanding and handling the existing plants rather than eradicating them at their source.
In a later chapter, we will explore methods for purifying the subconscious and enhancing our intuitive abilities, allowing us to much easily and more spontaneously tap into the collective subconscious for insightful ideas.
Based on his findings of the collective subconscious Jung made another eye-opening discovery, though he could not explain it properly. He found out, that somehow the mental states of people and the outer events in the external world are somehow related. He could not explain why. For example, just like Leibniz did, Jung also used the chinese „i-Ching” prediction method to foretell the outcome of the events resulted by our choices in life. Tibetan lamas use the „mo” technique for predictions, and those who are on a highly experiences level with working with their minds can tell the future from signs that appear in the world. Anything can be a sign, that triggers a clear intuitive insight-, an „aha” feeling in all those who cleaned their subconscious and let their intuition fold out. We also have few methods in the west for predictions like tarot cards and western astrology.
The subconscious magneto-electric impulses, like waves created by a stone thrown into a pond, generate circular wave-patterns that reflect and carry the original patterns. These ”secondary” or „reflectionary” patterns can manifest in various points of space, resembling the source pattern in some way. Our conscious perception enables the emergence of these magneto-subconscious patterns in our awareness, even though they may not directly resemble the original source in terms of material manifestation. However, there remains a secondary property of "it is like if," as if there is a resemblance or similarity present. Our brain's glial cells, which are predominantly magneto-electric, play a crucial role in recognizing and bringing these patterns to our consciousness.
In practice, recognizing ”signs” for the first look it may look like superstition, still, they can reach much deeper than superstitious factors (as a black cat etc.). Here we shall consider, that a sign that triggers the recognition of synchronicity can be literally anything. A simple example can be the following: „I suddenly see two big birds and a small bird fly up to the sky in front of me in the moment I engage my fiance and from this I get the intuitive impression that we may have may be becoming a child together”. An even simpler example of synchronicity though is iChing, that also Leibniz applied. We may throw a coin six times physically or virtially on e.g. ichingonline.com and read the description of the corresponding sign is a relatively easy way to do. The sign’s description contains a reflection of the current situation, and a possible outcome of actions regarding to it.
Nevertheless, there were several scientific studies performed about the usefulness of synchronicity. One of them for example found out that 67 percent of people participated theraphies found it useful for the theraphy. These researches though focus only on the pragmatic application or the effects of the application. They can not explain how the phenomenon works.
In Buddhist terminology, the Sanskrit word "Mahamudra," also referred to as the "great sign" or the "great seal," signifies the state of mind where the practitioner attains profound insight and intuitive awareness. In this state, the understanding of space becomes so deep that any magneto-electric pattern or sign in the world intuitively activates all potential information and knowledge that exists or has occurred within space.
Jung sought to understand meaningful coincidences that surpassed conventional cause and effect by exploring synchronicity. In doing so, he delved into the connection between synchronicity and quantum physics, collaborating with physicist Wolfgang Pauli (-1958). They proposed that quantum entanglement could be a potential explanation for the underlying connection between mind and matter, including synchronicity. This interdisciplinary approach aimed to bridge the gap between psychology and physics.
Meanwhile, in Bella Italia
While not fully unraveling the depths of psychology and the physics of the world, V.F.D. Pareto (-1923), an esteemed Italian economist and sociologist, discovered that 80% of wealth belonged to a mere 20% of the population. This principle is known as the 80/20 rule or the Pareto rule. Pareto was the first to popularize the term "elite" in the socio-economic context. He astutely argued that democracy is a mere illusion crafted by the elite, a theatrical facade that pacifies people by offering them the semblance of choice between opposing ideologies. His insights came remarkably close to the truth.
Another remarkable Italian philosopher, B. Croce (-1952), explored the realms of economics and ethics with a unique perspective. He sought to separate logic from aesthetics, the brain from the spirit, thinking from feeling, concepts from intuitions, and the patterns of history from facts and art. In our modern world, one could liken his approach to the division between "left brain" and "right brain" activities. This could have potentially bridged the gap between rationalism and idealism, transcendentalism and empiricism, by offering distinct definitions for each side that could be mutually comprehensible. However, Croce exhibited a preference for the realm of aesthetics over the realm of logic, valuing the beauty of art over mere utility. He termed his viewpoint the "philosophy of the spirit."
As a pantheist, Croce perceived divinity in everything, prioritizing the essence of appearances over their practicality. For him, the presence of divinity superseded considerations of usefulness. Consequently, Croce assigned greater importance to intuition, which he regarded as a broader and more organic entity compared to logic. Intuition, as Croce explained, cannot be adequately expressed within the confines of limited logic and words. According to him, artistic expressions and signs serve as clearer, undeluded means of conveying intuitive messages. In a contemporary sense, we might liken the items of art to two-dimensional materials attempting to represent a three-dimensional hologram. Nonetheless, these representations offer a more comprehensive portrayal or impulse, effectively conveying the essence of the three-dimensional hologram, surpassing the limitations of analytical language. As a result, attempting to define or establish "standards" of beauty through verbal explanations becomes futile. Croce's main message enlightens us to the fact that intuitive insights cannot be fully conveyed through words.
G. Gentile (-1944), a close associate of Croce, was a philosopher who famously ghostwrote for Benito Mussolini. As a nationalist politician, Gentile held strong views against individualism and advocated for a comprehensive form of collectivism. He rejected both capitalism and communism, proposing instead a synthesis of the two. His vision entailed a nationalist state in which corporations served the interests of the nation rather than pursuing individual profit. Gentile labeled his philosophy "actual idealism" or "actualism" to highlight its emphasis on action—the pure act of thinking—rather than mere imagination.
Applying Mach's physics as an example, Croce and Gentile surpassed the communist/ socialist ideas of Aurobindo (and Carpenter) by introducing their concept of the absolute. They believed that both ordinary and divine consciousness are rooted in and influenced by the absolute nature of the mind. When one's mind becomes a radiant mirror, there is no need to worry about the presence of some beggars or extravagant deities, as everything appears harmonious and beautiful.
Gentile had a broader aim than merely exploring the concept of the absolute. He sought to provide the highest possible contribution to the Italian people for the betterment of their nation. He wanted to offer a tool that not only facilitated intellectual understanding but also enabled its practical manifestation in everyday life.
He posed a thought-provoking question: What good is the brightness of a mirror if the images reflected within it are seen as the appearance and dissolution of distinct entities? What experiences these images while remaining unchanged, yet becoming more vivid as the images shine stronger? The answer is mind’s natural awareness. Gentile, therefore, introduced a process called "reflective awareness" in the education system, serving as a means for the revival of the idealist doctrine of the mind's autonomy.
However, awareness can be a double-edged sword. Without a deep understanding of the space-nature of the mind, one can mistakenly identify the clear and seeking nature of awareness as a separate self. Awareness can misinterpret itself as being an ”I”. This misinterpretation leads to dualism and the emergence of egotism. It is important to recognize that this awareness is the same in everyone, as the space-nature of the mind permeates all beings and everything. Our individual space-natures are fundamentally the same, as there is only one space within which the awareness of every being emerges from and plays around. Simultaneously, the natural awareness of this space-nature is diverse, as space enjoys discovering itself from numerous perspectives. When an individual on a particular perspective begins to identify itself as an "I" rather than as limitless space-nature, dualism arises, and the ego-idea is taken serious.
Therefore, it is crucial not to think, "I am aware of..." because this statement itself reflects confusion. Instead, we should contemplate, "It is the nature of space-like mind to be aware." Ultimately, when our physical bodies are no more, the only identity we have left is the space-nature of our mind, which is our true essence.
Interestingly, while Gentile's friend Croce emphasized right-brain-based artistic inspiration, Gentile advocated for left-brain-based logical thinking and awareness. At the same time Gentile posited that only the spirit or mind is real, and the self does not even exist as an object. Both Croce and Gentile arrived at the same conclusion, albeit from different perspectives. They recognized that the notion of a self is an illusion, and believing in its eternal or true existence, akin to that of a god, hinders both intuitive perception and effective systems of cooperation. whether intentional or not, Gentile's reasoning aligned more with the concept of space-nature advocated by Buddhism rather than the god-nature emphasized by Hinduism.
Lived Experience Explored: Phenomenologists Unveil New Horizons
Simultaneously with the endeavors of James, Mach, and Bradley, the German philosopher and former priest F. Brentano (-1917) presented a contrasting perspective to Peirce's emphasis on practicality (pragmatism) and turned his attention to the essence of intention itself. He defined mental phenomena as "those phenomena which encompass an intentional object within themselves," asserting that every mental experience had an underlying motive or source, namely intentionality. This perspective holds true when considering the process of bringing something into conscious attention. Intentionally directing attention towards an object or phenomena and maintaining awareness until recognition occurs are crucial for conscious awareness. Recognition involves associating a name with the phenomena or its associative circumstances. This process involves the brain identifying the neural pathways related to the phenomena, providing a contextual understanding within consciousness.
Brentano's concept of descriptive psychology, which examines how individuals experience specific mental events, would later serve as the foundation for phenomenology as developed by his student, Husserl. Additionally, he proposed the notion that "Wahrnehmung ist Falschnehmung" (perception is misperception, or rather: believing/ taking things serious is a misconcept), referring to the deceptive nature of sensory perceptions that can provide us with illusory information.
At the same time, Brentano affirmed the reliability of our internal perceptions, such as intutive perception or the experience of hearing inner sounds.
The idea of questioning the inherent reality of sensory impressions, while acknowledging the significance of intuitive recognitions, emerged as a prevalent theme among subsequent phenomenologists who elaborated on this realm of philosophical science.
To begin our exploration of phenomenologists, let us first delve into the works of Bergson. Just like the Italian philosopher Croce, the French philosopher HL Bergson (-1941) emphasized the importance of "immediate intuition" over logic. He regarded intuition as the essence of life itself, a dynamic force and the very breath of existence. According to him, intuition represents a spontaneous, self-reflective instinct that transcends the confines of logic. While logic serves as a practical tool, still, when not properly trained, it can hinder intuition by fostering a sense of pride in our ability to explain things.
Logic is tied to memory, immediate intuition, at its purest form, offers a direct perception unencumbered by intellectual constructs. While the brain's function is to narrow down the vastness of space into practical everyday utility, intuitive perception serves as its counterpart, expanding our minds to limitless capacities, allowing us to experience more than just the mundane aspects in front of our noble noses.
The brain's function, is to filter and process the vast array of sensory inputs, prioritizing the relevant ones through the Reticular Activation System (RAS). Despite not being aware of the RAS in his time, Bergson's insights align with its function in regulating our attention.
Bergson believed that we are responsible for our subconscious memories, stored within our brain [and forming neural pathways or magneto-energetic tendencies], and impose limitations on our own freedom of choice. However, by turning our awareness towards intuition, we can reclaim our individual freedom, transcending past behaviors and habits. Bergson also argued that the mind is not created by the brain but rather manifests itself through the individual body and brain, shaping everyday consciousness within the confines of logical thinking.
At this point we have to insert an interesting story about the brain.
„British neurologist John Lorber (evidence that was popularized by Roger Lewin in 1980, in an article in Science: “Is Your Brain Really Necessary?”). Lorber did extensive studies of people who suffer hydrocephalus, more commonly known as “water on the brain” (an ailment that results from an abnormal build-up of cerebrospinal fluid). While many of the individuals suffering from this ailment are severely mentally impaired, Lorber also discovered to his surprise that some of these individuals have IQs greater than 100 and live utterly normal lives, even though in several cases they have virtually no brain.” (GWBLC, p140-141) „The brain’s primary function is not productive; it does not produce states of consciousness from the interactions of supposedly inert brain matter. Instead, it is adaptive; it is what allows us to keep our attention on the world around us; it is what “keeps us in touch with realities”; it is what keeps our awareness “tensely strained on life”; it is what prompts us to interact with the world in an effective way (ME 59). As Bergson puts it, “the brain is the organ of attention to life” (ME 59). It is “the sharp edge by which consciousness cuts into the compact tissue of events”; but, just as a knife is not limited to its edge, our experiential life is not identical to the activity of the brain (CE 263). Our brain/nervous system, therefore, is understood by Bergson to be a center of action, rather than as something that creates mental images (MM 19).” (GWBLC, p141) Bergson, in his insightful analogy, likened the mind to a telephone central, with the individual serving as the receiver connected to it. Today, a more contemporary comparison can be drawn using a television set, where the mind acts as the transmitter antenna or satellite, and the brain serves as the receptive receiver, akin to the television set itself. We shall also consider, that if we “pull a transistor out of your T.V. set and it no longer works,” we would not (or at least should not) conclude that the transistor is the source of the program.” (GWBLC, p144) Bergson posits that the brain recollects memory in a form of “uninterrupted series of instantaneous visions, visions or images”. (GWBLC, p146)
Bergson's assertion implies that the act of remembering goes beyond the mere presence of neurons. Instead, it encompasses a continuous process of rekindling past mental magneto-electric impulses. In Bergson's view, memories are not stored within the physical brain itself. Rather, they reside within the mentioned magneto-electric tendencies and impulses that shape the material brain and its intricate network of neural pathways. These neural pathways not only facilitate repeated recollections but also play a role in shaping our mindset. When we undergo a change in mindset, it corresponds to a magneto-electric change in us, ultimately leading to a transformation in our brain itself. Furthermore, from other sourses we know, that the magneto-electric powerfield generated by individuals can influence those in close proximity, whether they are directly involved in the specific memories transformed or simply present in our everyday lives. This interconnectedness finds its resonance in various aspects, such as the intricate dynamics of family constellations or the transformative power of altering our mindset (and electromagnetic vibration) in order to dissolve traumas.
Bergson keenly highlights the inherent drawback of our deeply ingrained habit of labeling and naming our inner experiences, which he aptly characterizes as bearing a "heavy cost" (Bergson, GWBLC, p14). When we assign words and categories to our experiences, such as chair, cup, anger, hunger, and so forth, we oversimplify their true nature, reducing them to manageable "chunks of experience" (Bergson, GWBLC, p14) within the confines of language. These intellectual constructs formed through naming act as a metaphorical "camera obscura" (Bergson, MMPVI, p251), a lens that obscures and restricts the full illumination of mind’s clear light. They limit our access to the deeper realm of consciousness, preventing us from fully grasping the "consciousness of consciousness" (Bergson, MMPVI, p251).
Bergson, like Croce and Gentile, employed the term ”relative” knowledge to refer to logic, while reserving the term ”absolute” knowledge for intuition, expressing his clear preference for the latter. In doing so, Bergson characterized life as an "endless stream of becoming," where the manifestation is referred to as existence, life, matter, or simply "something," while the cessation is termed nonexistence, death, voidness, or simply "nothing." Appearance and cessation, something and nothing, are intrinsic aspects of the same totality, inseparable and interdependent. Neither can exist without the other, as they are integral parts of the nature of the universe.
Based on this, he concluded, that both voidness of the absolute and the matter of appearance are the part of the great, „constantly changing flux” (GWBLC,p4) of totality or „the flux of universal becoming” (GWBLC,p4), and thus, he acknowledged that both intuition and logic hold significance within the entirety of existence. Hence, we may say that we exist in two realms: the boundless absolute and the self-imposed limitations of the simplified relative world, enabling us to navigate a manageable complexity.
Given Bergson's stance on the limitations of the brain, the value he placed on intuition, and his acknowledgment of the interplay between the relative and absolute perspectives in understanding reality, it comes as no surprise that he did not view the world as inherently fixed or solely real. Instead, he recognized the inherently relative nature of human experience. This brings us to the heart of Bergson's phenomenology.
From Bergson's standpoint, our senses are intricately intertwined with the realm of appearance, where things constantly emerge and recede in a perpetual flux. In essence, this flux is the very essence of life. Consequently, the fundamental purpose of our senses is to ensure our survival and sustain our existence. To enhance our perception, it becomes crucial to redirect our awareness inward, transcending the boundaries of the relative and embarking on a journey into the realm of the absolute. However, this endeavor is not without its challenges, as Bergson describes the allure of the external world as a captivating "magnetic pull" (Bergson, GWBLC, p12) that can distract and divert our attention from the inward exploration.
Bergson himself engaged in a form of mind-training known as meditation. This practice serves as a training ground for the consciousness, akin to a gym where it can train itself, or a laboratory where one can experiment with relinquishing rigid habits and preconceived notions that hinder the recognition of the true nature of our minds.
Through his dedicated practice of meditation, Bergson attained glimpses into the profound depths of the mind's nature. He describes this experience as: „(There is no clear-cut “membrane” that separates my “awareness-bubble” from the greater sea in which I am floating.) When I am connected in this way, I feel at ease and deeply peaceful. During these moments, life feels rich, full of promise and significance.” (GWBLC, p212) and “so completely mingled we can never say where one begins and the other ends (GWBLC, p155)”.
Bergson eloquently conveys the notion that awareness serves as the connective thread between individuals, leading to a profound sense of interconnectedness when fully experienced. If we contemplate the fact that the space within an atom far exceeds the physical matter it contains, and we further acknowledge the notion that space permeates and connects us, Bergson's experience of interconnectedness takes on a profound significance. Furthermore, when we delve into the realm of quantum physics, we discover that it is not matter or waves alone that shape reality, but rather the directed capacity of awareness, in this case, the particularly the attentive awareness of scientists. The famous double-slit experiment in quantum physics serves as a testament to this concept, as explored in a previous article of this series.
Awareness, as an inherent aspect of space, possesses the ability to influence what manifests within that space. It is through awareness that the choice is made whether space manifests as light (photons) or as matter (electrons). In essence, it is the space-awareness that determines what unfolds and what does not. Bergson's concept of the "awareness-bubble" represents his personal experience of reality.
From this understanding, we recognize that awareness is the foundational element required not only to experience, but also to consciously direct our attention towards particular tendencies and thus manifest our realities. Perception, then, becomes the means by which we become aware of external impulses that may influence us on the relative level.
Regarding perception, Bergson elaborates as follows: „Perception is master of space in the exact measure in which action is master of time” (HBHMM, p23). With this profound understanding, Bergson laid the foundation for phenomenology.
At the core or the ground of recognition and perception lies the unchangeable truth that all phenomena manifest within the realm of space.
Furthermore, as we have observed with intuition, awareness has no limitations in space, allowing us to describe it as space-like awareness—an inherent quality of awareness itself. This understanding leads us to the realization that fully perfect perception is not restricted by distance.
Additionally, according to Bergson, action occurs within the framework of time. Movement is intrinsically connected to the concept of time, as time essentially represents the unfolding of movement in space. Therefore, in a scenario where no entities or particles move, not even electrons orbiting a nucleus or photons emerging in a pure vacuum, the experience of time ceases to exist. Without movement or action, time is nonexistent, and consequently, there is no manifestation taking place. Based on these insights, we can conclude that movement, alongside space-awareness, forms the fundamental basis for all existence, encompassing both the world and our minds. To better comprehend this example, consider that movement generates frequencies, the representation of which are light, sound, and energy. Vibrational harmony patterns give rise to formations that eventually solidify into matter, culminating in the creation of objects. By acknowledging the interconnectedness and interdependence of space and phenomena, we unlock a deeper understanding of the dynamic relationship between movement and perception.
Here, we can connect the three dots and explore the relationship between a space-like mind, movement, and awareness. A space-like mind possesses the ability to be aware of both movement and ”non-movement”, independent of any limitations imposed by the presence or absence of movement. To grasp this concept, we can consider the analogy of a four-dimensional mind being aware or shifting its focus to different three-dimensional contexts. Just as we, as three-dimensional beings, can shift our attention from one two-dimensional drawing on a sheet of paper to another, our mind can shift its focus to different aspects of three dimensional reality. We have the capacity to choose what we direct our awareness towards, whether it be the intricate details of a drawing or the vast expanse of the sky.
(Indeed, from the double slit experiment, we gain the understanding that the act of being aware is not a passive process. It is through our focused awareness that the "wave function collapses" and light is "materialized" into a three-dimensional reality. In this way, our awareness plays a significant role in creating the world we perceive. However, for the purposes of phenomenology, let us remain focused on the context of perception and defer the discussion of manifestation to a later section in this chapter.)
Is it possible to analyze space-awareness alone, in itself, while exploring the nature of reality? Should we consider only space-like awareness or also include spontaneous movement in our exploration? When considering life and existence, it becomes crucial to incorporate the factor of movement that arises from space, because that is what we cal reality and life is. By integrating both space and movement, we gain a more comprehensive understanding of the dynamics of existence.
In our 3D reality, space is intrinsically connected to spontaneous movement. We may use the metaphore, that ”space is continuously pregnant”. Space and spontaneous movement are inseparable. Space constantly holds within it the potential for movement, leading to the manifestation of phenomena such as light, energy, matter, and in general, what we call life. Additionally, movement is responsible for the dissolution of these phenomena back to space. Our body gets born, and it will eventualy die. This is a natural process. It is through the dynamic nature of movement that everything is formed, created, and eventually dissolved.
No wonder Bergson eloquently states, "Questions relating to subject and object, to their distinction and their union, should be put in terms of time rather than of space." (HBHMM, p77)
Simultaneously, when we examine this sentence from the angle of the relationship between subject, object and action, we come to realize that the experience of the interdependence between subject and object transcends mere action or time. The connection between subject and object extends beyond their momentary interactions.
Space serves as the unifying element that permeates both subject and object, whether it is the space between their electrons and nucleus, the interplay of magneto-electric fields, or the shared field of awareness. Regardless of the level at which we examine this phenomenon, space acts as the connecting force, bridging the gap and establishing a fundamental relationship between subject and object.
Regardless of their appearance as individual subjects or objects, or their interactions, the fundamental nature of reality lies in the understanding that space-awareness both creates and permeates them all. Space-awareness serves as the underlying canvas for all temporal manifestations, or as a radient mirror, behind the pictures.
How can we truly grasp the essence of this interconnectedness and feel it in our bones? Bergson offers insight into this by stating, ”This doorway can also be opened consciously and intentionally via a variety of spiritual techniques that explicitly engage the physical body (e.g., yogic postures, chanting, breathing techniques, drumming, dancing, and so on).” (GWBLC, p213). Additionally, he emphasizes the need for a ”peculiar type of effort, an “effortless effort” if you will” (GWBLC, p214).
What does effortless effort means, that Bergson tells us? It describes a particular kind of meditation Bergson performed.
his form of meditation directly engages with space-awareness, free from any unnecessary complexities, without any frippery or fuzz. The objective is simply to be aware, without engaging in additional mental or physical activities. There is no effort made even in not making an effort. The aim here is to just be aware, without any additional brain or bodily movement. We do not make any effort, not even to refrain from making an effort. The focus is on achieving a state of stillness without any movement. When one attains mastery over this state of awareness, it is known as Mahamudra or the Great Seal, as the seal of space-nature seals all phenomena that may about to arise. This process is not easy, as each of us has a habitual "thought-radio" constantly playing in our brains. Since this is a natural property of the brain, our goal is not to suppress it, but rather to neglect it or calming it down. We simply allow thoughts to arise, play around, and eventually disappear. We do not follow them, we do not engage into them. Tilopa’s advice in his Ganges Mahamudra song: “Don’t control. Let go and rest naturally.” of „Train awareness until it does truly rest”. After a while, just like a cup of stirred muddy water placed on a desk, the mud settles, and eventually, we can see through the water clearly. Thus, without any effort to control or manipulate awareness, the mind naturally settles into its inner stillness or depth.
Another approach, similar in nature, is known as Dzogchen or the Great Perfection. It entails allowing all experiences to arise and dissolve in the mind without active involvement, while maintaining a pure awareness of their presence. The term "Great Perfection" signifies the recognition that all phenomena can unfold within the vastness of space, and the spacious awareness itself encompasses and embraces everything. It is akin to a four-dimensional consciousness resting in its own essence, knowing that all manifestations within the three-dimensional contextual realities are encompassed within it.
Mahamudra is a practice that transcends or cuts through ordinary reality by directly recognizing the state of non-moving presence. It involves realizing that this state of awareness is space-like, expansive and fearless, permeating all aspects of movement (that we call existence). From this recognition arises the understanding that energy and joy are inherent qualities of reality, unrestricted by any limitations. They are natural expressions within the vastness of space-like awareness.
Dzogchen, on the other hand, emphasizes the inclusion of both stillness and movement within the same totality. Therefore, the significance of existence is not solely found in movement, but it is based mainly on the space-nature of reality itself.
Both converge upon the same realization, just from different perspectives.
It is crucial to understand here, that we do not add anything to the mind; instead, we simply remove the limiting habits and distractions that obstruct us from recognizing our true space-nature.
Here, we must caution the reader that practices like Mahamudra and Dzogchen - crown-jewel practices of Diamondway Buddhism -, which directly work with mind, should only be undertaken after years of dedicated practice under the guidance of an experienced master. Attempting these practices without the necessary experience and without the preliminary practices that cultivate stability of mind will not yield results, regardless of our efforts. To acquire the necessary preliminary practices, it is advisable to visit a meditation center and seek guidance there.
Nevertheless, as Bergson suggests, when one adequately prepares, the "world we have so carefully constructed will disintegrate" (GWBLC, p213). What becomes increasingly evident through years of practice is the natural state of mind, a radiant and vivid space awareness that Bergson refers to as "some sort of superconsciousness" (GWBLC, p220).
The term "superconsciousness" as used by Bergson refers to the heightened ability of intuition, where one can spontaneously or intentionally perceive distant events, thoughts, and even past or future occurrences. We may be able to tell what Mrs. Smith cooks on the other side of the globe and what she is thinking about while doing so. We could also tell what she will be cooking next Wednesday.
Alongside intuition, engaging with the nature of the mind can also bring forth other extraordinary qualities, which may be considered supernatural to those who haven't explored their mind's potential. However, for those who have dedicated themselves to meditation and inner work, these abilities become normal and integrated into everyday life. Meditation is a valuable investment in ourselves, as our minds are always present, it is always with us. We just have to look at it.
This sincere author had the privilege of knowing Péter Galambos, a Hungarian practitioner who dedicated over eight years to intensive meditation practices, including Mahamudra and Dzogchen, in a cave located in the Nangchen area of Tibet. Despite extreme conditions, such as winter temperatures reaching minus 40 degrees Celsius, Péter sustained warmth in his body through the practice of generating inner heat known as "tumo." Having attained profound insights into the nature of the mind, he later returned to Europe, Australia, and China, sharing his wisdom and experiences.
This sincere author also knows the Danish meditation master named Lama Ole Nydahl, who learnt the preliminary practices and Mahamudra from the 16th Karmapa. He was entrusted by the Karmapa with the task of obtaining the complete Dzogchen transmission series as well. After receiving these teachings, the 16th Karmapa sent him back to the West. Lama Ole Nydahl dedicated his life to establish over 600 meditation centers worldwide and devoted himself tirelessly to helping others. Through his unwavering efforts, he attained the highest realization of Mahamudra that is possible.
Bergson's contribution as a philosopher extends beyond his ideas alone. He exemplified his beliefs through personal effort and deep exploration, striving to attain profound realizations and experiences in alignment with the concepts he philosophized about. Bergson demonstrated a commitment to integrating theory and practice, enriching his work with personal depth and authenticity.
During Bergson's era, a renowned philosopher closely associated with phenomenology was the German thinker EGA Husserl (-1938). It is not surprising that he found inspiration in the teachings of Buddhism. As he expressed, "I could not tear myself away" while he immersed in Buddhist literature. Reflecting on the matter, Husserl's assistant remarked that "the various phases of Buddhistic self-discipline were essentially phases of phenomenological reduction.” Moreover, in his essay titled "On the Discourses of Gautama Buddha," Husserl himself asserted that „Buddhism is comparable only with the highest form of the philosophy and religious spirit of our European culture.” In an unpublished manuscript entitled "Socrates – Buddha," Husserl drew a parallel between the Eastern Buddhist tradition and the Western Socratic school, both of which emphasized the philosophy of "knowing oneself." Husserl regarded Buddhism not merely as intellectual nourishment but also apllied it as a transformative practice capable of fostering positive personal growth. He described meditation as a praxis whose aim is to elevate humankind through universal scientific reason”.
Husserl drew significant inspiration from the "Mind Only School" (also known as Yogachara or Cittamatra) within Buddhism, particularly in its approach to describing the nature of mind. According to this school of thought, everything unfolds within the space-awareness within the mind, and the mind is the source of all manifestations.
The key understanding here is that the mind is akin to space, and just as things appear within space, at the same time they actually also arise within the expansive nature of the mind. Or, according to the teachings of the Mind Only School we may express it as manifestations occur within the nature of mind, which possesses a space-like quality. As a result, these manifestations appear in space as the things and phenomena we experience in our reality. Whether we approach it from the lens of quantum physics, which explores the nature of space and examines how mind consciousness influences its appearance (”the space that is influenced by consciousness”), or from the perspective of the Mind Only School, which elucidates appearances from the phenomenal standpoint of the mind (”the space-like mind that emanates phenomena”), we ultimately converge at the same conclusion. From this joint perspective, one can assert that whatever occurs in space (anywhere) and time (anytime) happens within the mind. Buddhism refers to this as the nature of mind.
Simultaneously, when one lacks space-awareness and mistakenly perceives oneself as separate or capable of detachment from other aspects of space, the illusory notion of a distinct "self" or ”me”arises. From that point onward, attention and energy no longer flow naturally within space, but instead become hindered, obstructed, or hijacked by this concept. One strives to direct or pull in energies, power, fame, and fortune towards oneself (manifesting as desires, grasping, and greed), while simultaneously seeking to avoid, repel or push away that which is disliked (resulting in anger or hate). These behaviors stem from a lack of understanding (ignorance or stupidity) regarding the non-dual nature of mind, and it is within this absence of wisdom that the dualistic tendencies of greed and anger unfold. Furthermore, these three fundamental emotions give rise to their variations, such as pride and jealousy, as well as countless shades of mixed emotional combinations known as feelings.
These feelings, whether they are comfortable or uncomfortable, manifest within the limbic system of our brain and can be controlled by the part of our brain called neocortex if we develop sufficient capacity in that area. Thoughts and feeling together form our everyday consciousness. Thoughts and emotions intertwine to form our everyday consciousness. However, due to the habitual belief in a separate "I," this everyday subjective consciousness remains relative and subjective, distinct from the objective nature of the absolute space-nature of the mind.
However, it is important to note a distinction between Cittamatra and Husserl's phenomenology. Cittamatra is grounded in the perspective of absolute mind, whereas Husserl's phenomenology is rooted in the relative perspective of consciousness.
In the case of Husserl, the main thesis of phenomenology emerges from the standpoint of a dualistic "I," because it metaphorically uses the term ”everything emerges in MY consciousness”. This can lead to a subtle form of egotism. This egotism can be seen as a transcendental egotism, as it transcends everyday consciousness but remains within the cycle of worldly existence.
It implies an approach according o which "only I exist, I am important, I can perceive and manifest things, and the rest of the world is merely a reflection in my consciousness." This is how Husserl means phenomenology to be interpreted. It can be seen as reminiscent of a Hindu-style God-mind perspective, which remains within the cycle of existence of worldly life-forms, rather than transcending it.
Although Husserl drew inspiration from Buddhism and recognized the space-like nature of things, he did not extend this understanding to the notion of the "I." It is akin to a slightly Hindu-style God-consciousness perspective, ”I am and I manifest everything”.
This is the perspective that is reflected in Husserl's phenomenology, as it "brackets" the relative existence of others and external phenomena, emphasizing that only our own subjective experience within our consciousness holds significance. It suggests that "only 'I' exist, 'I' am important, 'I' have the ability to perceive and convey meaning, and the rest of the world is merely a reflection within my consciousness." This is the inference drawn from Husserl's phenomenology.
However, Husserl's assertion that "all consciousness is consciousness of something" could potentially be interpreted as suggesting the existence of a separate object or thing-in-itself, thus giving rise to a dualistic perspective that separates the subject from the object. This viewpoint would indeed raise concerns, especially considering contemporary evidence such as the double-slit experiment, which demonstrates the inseparability of the subject, the object, and their interaction. It is worth noting, however, that Husserl did not explicitly argue for the existence of things in themselves. Instead, his phenomenology focused on the subjective experience of consciousness.
„Husserl insisted, there might be no external world at all. Perception is instead as if of something; it identifies or describes a merely putative object, whether the object exists or not.” (MMPPP, Ix)
Husserl's insistence on the potential absence of an external world reveals his failure to distinguish between the absolute and the relative. Furthermore, he attributes qualities to perception that it does not inherently possess. While it is true that perception can encompass various perspectives, akin to changing sunglasses to match our shifting moods, these experiences remain confined within the realm of relative context. The relative lacks the ability to manifest the world in the same way as the absolute.
Had Husserl recognized the influence of subconscious impressions in shaping our reality, he would have been closer to the truth. As Jung aptly suggests, our subconscious habitual tendencies exert a profound impact on our attention and actions, encompassing approximately 95% of our daily experiences. Nevertheless, the ultimate truth resides within the absolute realm. Perception pertains to our sensory organs, concepts correlate with our thinking tendencies, and the subconscious represents the deep magnetoelectric blocks or flows that permeate our body and energy-field. However, these aspects, while significant, do not encompass the entirety of ultimate truth.
The crux of reality lies within the absolute, transcending the triumvirate of subconscious, conscious, and the physical body itself. This absolut is a vast space or space-awareness within which all manifestations occur. To grasp this concept fully, it is imperative to perceive the mind not solely through the lens of individual ”I” but rather as possessing a nature akin to space itself. The mind possesses the inherent quality of space, enabling it to manifest everything within its expansive realm. This space-awareness acts as the perceiver and influencer of all phenomena, while also serving as the backdrop into which they dissolve. Everything exists within this boundless space; there is no existence beyond it. The word existance is actually within the context of space. Since the mind owns a space-like awareness, all experiences—movements, thoughts, concepts and even appearances/ phenomena—arise, transpire, and fade away within the mind. Consequently, the thing-in-itself becomes a mere event that unfolds within the confines of the space-nature of mind.
By adopting this perspective, our understanding of something being "in our mind" transforms into a more accurate perception: that a thought or a phenomena we call an object simply exists "in mind." This realization implies that all aspects of our existence manifest within the mind, aligning with the principles of Cittamatra. Husserl drew inspiration from Cittamatra; however, his comprehension possibly fell short. Alternatively, we can speculate that Husserl possessed a profound understanding of it, still, he aimed to present a digestible explanation for a broader audience. We also could speculate that he simply sought to provide an explanation that simplified the ups and downs of the relative world as solely residing within the conscious brain, without acknowledging any interconnectedness within space-nature. This approach possibly made it easier for people to cope with it.
Nevertheless, we shall note, that expressing that the perception of the "I" defines the world can be somewhat dangerous, as it may inflate an individual's ego. The idea that may arise in some individuals, that "I am responsible for my own perception, so I am the creator-god of my own world," is a proud and ignorant viewpoint regarding the supposed reality.
Husserl's treatment of objects remained confined to the relative level, perceiving them as mere things-in-themselves, without acknowledging the presence of the absolute. As such, had to ”... distinguish between the objects and the contents of consciousness. There is a difference between the things we are aware of and the contents of our awareness of them.” (MMPPP, viii)
As the old Tibetan saying goes, "one does not need to cover the world with leather, one just needs to take shoes on." In other words, one doesn't have to immediately change the world itself, but can instead shift their awareness, attention, or perspective on things. While the relative level explanation may not lead to a complete understanding of the absolute nature of the mind, still, by shifting consciousness one step further towards the understanding of the relative nature of perception, it does offer a way to navigate the relative world with greater ease.
Husserl referred to the relative consciousness as the "natural attitude" that people adopt in perceiving the world. His proposition that our conscious perception actively "constitutes" the things we previously believed to exist independently and objectively has its merits from various angles.
Husserl also built upon the teachings of his teacher, Brentano, who described intentionality as the fundamental source that shapes our experience of phenomena. If we wish to change our opinion that we form based on our perception, we can. By learning to focus on positive aspects, one can undoubtedly create a happier world for themselves. Additionally, positive attitudes and vibrations tend to attract others with similar mindsets, resulting in like-minded individuals coming together. This can be also understood through the concept known as the "law of attraction," initially proposed by AJ Davis (-1910) and further developed by UL Tölle, also known as E. Tolle (1948-).
Hence, when one maintains a particular mindset, it naturally attracts individuals who share similar interests and perspectives. In the context of this book, both the author and the dear reader possess similar mindsets and interests, which creates a connection through the medium of this book.
Thus, phenomenology provides us with a valuable perspective that encourages us not to overly fixate on the seriousness of the world. It enables us to transform the way we view the world in a positive manner. It empowers us to consciously shape our mindset and form positive opinions based on our perceptions. This is why phenomenology is often referred to as "transcendental subjectivity."
MF Scheler (-1928), a German philosopher influenced by Husserl’s teacher Brentano, offered a unique perspective on phenomenology, delving into its esoteric aspects. He believed that phenomenology encompassed more than just the relative-perception aspect described by Husserl. Scheler's exploration of phenomenology highlighted an additional advantage: the ability to consciously recognize the pure triggering impulses of perception that emerge from phenomena as their essences or core values. These essences or core values are a priori to the mental constructs we attach to them. By recognizing these impulses, we go beyond the mental labeling and categorization processes, allowing us to grasp the inherent reality of phenomena. Mental constructs and language come into play later on, as we assign titles and stamps to these experiences, thereby shaping our understanding and making them real within our subjective perception. This implies the ability to recognize the impulses of perception, as well as the mental state that precedes our judgments regarding the perceived impulses.
Scheler believed that to truly grasp the deeper meaning of perceiving and experiencing phenomena, one must approach them with love rather than relying solely on logic. He emphasized the role of the heart, as opposed to the brain, in this process. As discussed in a previous chapter on the biology of intuition, it was mentioned that the absolute mind is primarily connected or associated with the heart, while logical relative-consciousness and feelings are associated with the brain. The heart is known to generate a magnetoelectric field that is approximately 500 times stronger than that of the brain. This phenomenon contributes to the warm and comforting feeling we experience when surrounded by loved ones. Scheler proposed that this remarkable interconnectedness, facilitated by boundless love, underlies our logical thinking processes. This interconnectedness serves as a conduit through which we can access essential information about the essence of phenomena, including their magnetoelectric vibrations. By embracing this interconnectedness and approaching the world with love, we can tap into a deeper understanding of the nature of phenomena and their inherent meanings.
Still, Scheler's ideas go beyond proposing a deeper understanding of the nature of phenomena through love. He suggests that boundless love is not only an interconnectedness or a transformative force, but it is also the first natural movement of space itself. According to Scheler, this boundless love emanates and gives rise to things, acting as the fundamental source of forming and creating objects within the world. Thus, every phenomenon arises from the essence of love. When we consider the implications in light of the double-slit experiment, Scheler suggests that the consciously directed awareness that transforms light (photons) into energy (electrons) can be equated with love. Within this fluid interplay, love symbolizes the creative force, akin to directed attention in the quantum realm, while its opposite, such as dislike, hatred, or withdrawn attention, represents destruction. This dynamic interplay resembles opposing vectors, where the negative dissolves the positive, resulting in the continual emergence and dissolution of love or life, perpetuating an eternal cycle.
Scheler voiced his criticism of Kant, asserting that Kant failed to acknowledge the foundation of love in a priori experience. In Scheler's perspective, the a priori is not solely an intellectual construct but also encompasses a perceivable, feelable magnetoelectric phenomenon.
Scheler characterized goodness on the moral level as an embodiment of love that actively manifests through actions.
In essence, Scheler encourages us to cultivate love towards all beings, which enables us to access a greater abundance of a priori intuition. This intuition holds a profound and expansive significance that surpasses the mere pursuit of a priori information. As a result, Scheler's value-based phenomenology diverges from Husserl's consciousness-based phenomenology.
Another significant form of phenomenology was developed and elaborated by M Heidegger (-1976).
Heidegger was a national socialist. The term "nationalist" indicates his prioritization of the well-being and happiness of his nation. As a national socialist, he believed in utilizing the social aspects of nationalism to achieve these goals. It's important to differentiate this from general socialism, which refers to the internationalist aspects of Marx's ideology („Proletars of the world unite!”), emphasizing unity among the working class worldwide. This has nothing to do with the benefit of the nation, but places the supressed anger of the workers class to the top of the spear with the idea of creating a one world government (also called New World Order) by using the socialist approach as a tool to control the angry masses. The ideology of socialism is not primarily concerned with the well-being of the nation but rather amplifies the repressed grievances of the working class, utilizing the socialist approach as a means to exert control over the discontented masses. The international solidarity and unification of the working class is believed to contribute to the emergence of influential superpowers like the United States of Europe and similar unions, which, in turn, may pave the way for the establishment of a global governing body, the one world government (also called New World Order).
At the same time both socialism and national socialism have the potential to fall into its extremes due to its enthusiastic approach of doing good (from their own perspectives), which was as also demonstrated on the stage of the Second World War. This period showcased a Hegelian dynamic of thesis-antithesis, with opposing sides led by figures such as Hitler and Lenin/Stalin. This Hegelian interplay of contradictions eventually led to significant outcomes, including the dissolution of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Additionally, the Ashkenazis (people originated from the Ashkenaz region of the Khazarian Empire), were compelled to migrate southward to the newly established nation of Israel. Today, roughly 85 percent of Israelis are Ashkenazis.
Heidegger, after his German-Ashkenazi phenomenologist mentor Husserl’s retirement, followed him in his position of a Rector in Freiburg University, and later on, Heidegger distanced himself from the extremes of the Second World War.
Heidegger's engagement with Asian philosophers and his study of contemporary Buddhist philosophers, such as D.T. Suzuki (-1966), is well-known. Suzuki, a Buddhist philosophy professor from Tokyo University, played a significant role in introducing Zen Buddhism (known as Chan in China) to the West and had a profound influence on Western thinkers, including Heidegger. Just like american W James, Heidegger also acknowledged reading Suzuki's books and was inspired by the knowledge Suzuki shared.
Before we delve into further details of Heidegger’s philosophy, let us first look into a brief summary of Heidegger's asian sources of philosophical inspiration, which will aid in our understanding of his philosophy.
Taoism recognizes the inherent harmony and balance in the natural world and emphasizes aligning oneself with this harmony. It emphasizes simplicity, spontaneity, and non-action. Zen Buddhism, on the other hand, focuses on direct experience and the realization of one's true nature. It emphasizes meditation, direct insight, and cultivating non-dualistic awareness. Both Taoism and Zen emphasize the awareness of being in the present moment, with Zen meditation particularly aiming to deepen insight into the radiant nature of the all-knowing mind through the stillness of non-wandering thoughts. Zen/Chan meditation can indeed be practiced in the West without the need for elaborate rituals. One approach is to engage with a contemplative technique known as huatou, which involves holding a question or expression in the mind during meditation. For example, a common huatou could be "What is the essence of reality: space or appearance?". While keeping this in mind, between the two directions of focus, the mind finally finds its way to look in between them or through them.
According to W. Barret and R. May, Heidegger was profoundly impacted by Taoism and Zen, which is evident in his use of Buddhist terminology to shape his own expressions. The Buddhist concept of "space-nature of mind" was translated into Heidegger's terminology as "nothingness" (Das Nichts) or "groundlessness" or ”empty/ essence-less nature” (Ab-Grund). Similarly, the notion of the individual’s awareness was transformed into "being there" (Dasein), while compassion was expanded upon as "being with" (Mittzein). Heidegger also extended Husserl's phenomenology by incorporating the perspective of awareness.
Heidegger utilized the term "Das Nichts" (similar to space-nature, emptiness, voidness, or hollowness) to capture the concept of the space-like nature of all things, implying that phenomena lack a solid essence. However, within this space-like nature, appearances or phenomena manifest. Heidegger emphasizes that these appearances have a hollow or essence-less nature (Ab-Grund). When the essence-lessness (Ab-Grund) of being (appearance/ phenomena/ creation of space/ manifestation/ birth) transitions into non-being (dissolution/ destruction/ death), it returns to this nothingness or space-nature (Das Nichts), according to Heidegger.
The suggested viewpoint that Heidegger wanted to convey to us is to keep in mind this space-nature (Das Nichts) while simultaneously expanding our awareness to encompass the world of appearances (Dasein). Understanding Das Nichts has nothing to do with nihilistic views that claim nothing exists. Instead, Das Nichts is constantly interconnected with Dasein in relation to appearances, as space, awareness and space-awareness are identical.
This also means that space (Das Nichts) is always present behind the appearances or phenomena that are continually experienced by Dasein. Thus, these two aspects (space-awareness and appearances/ phenomena) coexist or occur simultaneously.
Nevertheless, Heidegger's primary focus lay in ontological perspectives, particularly in exploring the meaning of being. He believed that the central issue is not merely comprehending knowledge but understanding the entity that experiences knowledge: the being. He posed questions as: What is the essence or significance of being? How does it manifest itself?
Thus, in the core of Heidegger's work lies the phenomenology of being or the phenomenology of existence.
He drew inspiration from thinkers such as Bergson in France and Brentano in Germany, who had writings closely related to Buddhist philosophy. While Husserl emphasized the consciousness-related and intentional aspect of phenomenology, showing how our experience of phenomena shapes our worldview, Scheler focused on the value-related part, particularly the role of love. Heidegger, on the other hand, centered on the existential or ontological aspect of phenomenology.
Heidegger raised the fundamental question: "Who asks what being is?" His perspective was that we ourselves are the ones who ask this question. According to Heidegger, it is more important to analyze the inner phenomena—the subject, the consciousness of the perceiver—that experiences perception than the external phenomena—, than the phenomena perceived like the objects and the things in the world. Therefore, he advocated for self-analysis. Why? Because we perceive the world through our own mental imprints, our qualia, and our individual perspectives. If we view the world through dark-tinted glasses, it appears dark to us; if we wear rose-tinted glasses, the world seems happy. Hence, if we seek to understand the meaning of existence, we must not only look outward but also turn our gaze inward to gain a comprehensive understanding, just as written on the wall of the oracles of Delphi:
„I warn you, whoever you are, Oh! You who want to probe the “Arcana of Nature”, that if you do not find “within yourself” that which you are looking for, you shall not find it outside either! If you ignore the excellences of your own house, how do you pretend to find other excellences? Within you is hidden the treasure of treasures! “Know Thyself” and you will know the Universe and the Gods.”
According to Heidegger, being precedes intentionality (as proposed by Husserl) and the will (as emphasized by Nietzsche). Heidegger's exploration of the idea of the self leads to the recognition that the self is ultimately just an idea and does not truly exist in reality. Heidegger gradually leads his readers to the conclusion that reality is space-like and encompasses everything in a non-dual way. However, he gradually constructs this understanding. Let us explore how he accomplishes this.
For the analysis of the self, Heidegger begins by questioning how we become aware of both inner and outer phenomena and what constitutes our mode of awareness. He identifies a common quality among all appearances, whether internal or external—they all "appear," they are "there." In his major work, "Being and Time," which he left unfinished, he refers to this quality as "Dasein." In German, ”Da” means ”there”, and „sein” means ”to be”. In case we only consider the literal meaning, "Dasein" means "being there", that we may understand as "being present," "being-in-the-world," or simply "being." At the same time, conversationally ”Dasein” is usually understood as, ”keeping attentiveness there” or ”attentiveness” or ”awareness”.
Thus, "Dasein" carries two parallel meanings. On one hand, it refers to the appearance, the subject or object that has manifested in space. On the other hand, it signifies the awareness that experiences both inner and outer phenomena. Heidegger combines these meanings in the term "Dasein," which encompasses the ontological aspect and the conscious awareness. This suggests Heidegger's notion that the ontological expression of being is merely an idea within awareness. He expands Husserl's dualistic concept of transcendental consciousness—the idea that there is an ego (subject) that experiences (action) something (object)—to a more inclusive, non-dualistic, and unifying perspective. Why? Because from Heidegger’s perspective the ideas of subject, object, and action all arise within awareness.
Through awareness, we perceive the essence of all three, which is movement in space. Thus, Heidegger introduces the concept that subject and object are inseparable and are different expressions of the same source.
Heidegger even suggested to appy the view of Dasein as an everyday view within the community, that suppose to create more opennes between people, due to the inferred „we ship in the same boat”-like feeling.
Heidegger describes the difference between appearances and phenomena as follows: "an appearance is 'that which shows itself in something else,' while a phenomenon is 'that which shows itself in itself.'"Stating this, although this may not seem to dissolve duality at first, Heidegger points out the inseparability, the unified nature or the same source of subject, object and action. This is because the terms "appearance" and "phenomenon" carry underlying viewpoints. Describing something as an "appearance" implies a separation between the object and one's own consciousness since it 'shows itself in something else,' even if that "something" is space. However, when using the term "phenomenon," one refers to a phenomenon primarily appearing within one's own consciousness. It is seen as something that 'shows itself in itself'—it is the movement of consciousness that reveals a miraculous interplay of phenomena within itself, for itself. The phenomenon is an event within or a part of its own conscious awareness. By employing the term "phenomenon," Heidegger unifies the subject, object, and action as three aspects of the same awareness, expressed through "Dasein."
This understanding leads us to perceive phenomena as mere movement in space (Das Nichts) experienced by awareness (Dasein). As a result, one of the significant conclusions of "Being and Time" is that being is fundamentally a movement in space, inherently connected to the attribute of time. In this view, space constantly generates spontaneous movement, which aligns with Bergson's perspective on space-awareness. According to Bergson, space continuously generates appearance and disappearance through the spontaneous act of movement.
This notion helps explain why Heidegger's concept of Dasein encompasses both phenomena and the awareness that contains them. From this standpoint, neither the subject that observes an object (awareness) nor the object being observed (appearance or phenomena) takes precedence. Instead, what becomes essential is the fact that they can occur within space. Thus, Dasein pertains to anything that unfolds within space-awareness. Phenomena are essentially events of activity, observing a phenomenon with awareness is an activity, and the disappearance of a phenomenon is an activity of space itself.
We can further extend Heidegger's thoughts by considering that from the perspective of space-awareness, concepts such as existence and non-existence, being and non-being, life and death are merely different aspects of the continuous motion inherent in time. They are interconnected and inseparable, representing various manifestations of the ever-changing nature of reality.
In addition, while time (past, present, and future) is an inherent aspect of being, Heidegger suggests avoiding getting trapped in particular temporal orientations in order to maintain the perspective of Dasein. He advises against being consumed by the past, held back by memories or "thrownness/disposedness." He also cautions against being fixated on the present, captivated by internal and external impulses or "fallen-ness/fascination." Furthermore, he advises against becoming absorbed in the future, indulging in dreams or speculation, which he refers to as "projection/understanding." Instead, Heidegger proposes cultivating a continuous awareness in encountering all phenomena that arise. By staying present and attentive, one can maintain a more comprehensive perspective on the nature of being.
Additionally, widening our attention from ourselves to include the well-being of others is an important aspect emphasized by Heidegger. According to him, maintaining the perspective of Dasein in our daily livMaurice Merleau-Ponty (-1961) es leads to an understanding of the "meaning of the world," which he refers to as the totality of Dasein's ”ontological structural whole”.
This understanding encompasses a sense of togetherness, referred to as Mitsein, or care, which involves a compassionate state of mind and being-with others. Heidegger's insights reveal the teachings of Buddhism on wisdom-awareness and the resulting compassion in a way that resonates with Western readers. Instead of perceiving experiences as "I am experiencing that particular something apart from me" as Husserl proposed, Heidegger suggests a shift towards the view of Dasein and Mitsein, where "we are aware of whatever appears and care for each other." In this way, Heidegger suggests that the ultimate truth of the world and the meaning of life lies in boundlessly expressed, non-subjective, non-dual awareness and compassionate kindness.
Inspired by Husserl and Heidegger, the French philosopher Maurice Merleau-Ponty (-1961) developed his work within phenomenology, offering a distinct perspective from his predecessors. He argued that perception of the world occurs through the body, such as when visually perceiving light impulses with our eyes. According to Merleau-Ponty, the body and the perceived object are inseparable and cannot be disentangled. He placed a primary emphasis on the body and its ”embodiment” (corporéité), considering it to have primacy over consciousness and mind. His philosophy was derived from this central thesis.
While Husserl emphasized that consciousness is always consciousness of something and involves an act of perceiving between the subject and the object, Merleau-Ponty drew attention to the embodiment of consciousness. He highlighted that since consciousness resides within the body, when we perceive our thoughts or feelings, our body becomes both the subject and the object simultaneously, as everything takes place within the realm of the body.
Simultaneously, when we consider the interconnection or separateness of the subject and object on a larger scale, whether we perceive a phenomenon as "external" or "internal" to our consciousness, the initial impulse of perception precedes the conceptualization of whether something is outside or inside. Hence, Merleau-Ponty emphasizes the "primacy of perception," whether it manifests through the five bodily senses or the sixth sense of intuition. The primacy of perception, the impulse preceding thought, or the space preceding movement—this is what unifies beings, as it represents a shared quality that we should strive to familiarize ourselves with.
Furthermore, in Merleau-Ponty's view, which shares similarities with Kant's, we do not directly perceive outer objects—the things-in-themselves—but rather perceive the light rays that reflect off them. It is these light rays that generate a chemical impulse within our bodies. "Perception is not first perception of things, but perception of elements ..., of rays of the world ...”. (MMPVI p218) Therefore, we are unable to recognize things until they exert an effect on us. „… the body has two sides, one "phenomenal," the other "objective." For "he who sees cannot possess the visible unless he is possessed by it, unless he is of it ..." (MMPVI p134-135).
It is possible to further our analysis by recognizing that multiple individuals can connect to the same object. As Body A and Body B become interconnected through their observation of the same object, each person reflects the other due to their shared stream of consciousness focused on the object. While the object of perception serves as a bridge between two consciousnesses, light rays act as the connecting force between all involved parties. Merleau-Ponty emphasizes that this process of reflection or perception can occur spontaneously or through active engagement. As a result, anything has the potential to become a "mirror of others," as Merleau-Ponty aptly phrases it. In this regard, Merleau-Ponty's phenomenology surpasses Husserl's perspective, which distinguishes between subject and object from the vantage point of a separate transcendental ego. Merleau-Ponty likens the interconnectedness of perceived entities to a handshake: ”I can feel myself touched as well and at the same time as touching” (MMPVI, p218) .
Since these perceptions, or what Hume refers to as impressions, occur prior to the formation of conceptual patterns, Merleau-Ponty asserts that this prior-to-logic or invisible process of connection and mirroring of visible forms instills within us a propensity through which we can navigate this imperceptible framework: ”the invisible substructure of the visible is the key to the unconscious structure of consciousness” (MMPVI, Iiii). This implies that we can gradually acquire the ability to navigate within the underlying subconscious realm that lies beneath the continuous flow of the ”stream of consciousness” (MMPVI, p51). Here, Merleau-Ponty refers to the same subconscious that was explored by Jung.
Furthermore, Merleau-Ponty goes beyond and asserts that while perceptions and everyday consciousness, including the subconscious, serve their purposes, they do not provide a complete understanding of the mind. He writes, ”mind could not be captured by its representations” (MMPVI, p139). He argues that true reflection is only possible because of the fundamental openness that exists between and behind the surface-level appearances, which he describes as the space-nature. According to Merleau-Ponty, all forms of reflection, including both conscious and subconscious aspects, find their basis in the "primordial openness" that exists between and behind appearances. He suggests that these appearances are nothing more than representations of the space-awareness-like "Absolute Mind" (MMPVI, p15).
The absolute itself cannot be localized, much like space cannot be localized. However, it is intricately connected with everything and serves as the connecting thread between all entities and individuals. „The mind is neither here, nor here, nor here. ... And yet it is "attached," "bound," it is not without bonds” (MMPVI, p222).
Mind encompasses both a timeless and non-dual Absolute aspect as well as a dualistic and temporal Relative nature. The Absolute is the space-like nature of mind that also encompasses the Relative consciousness. He wisely adds, that mind ”is neither one nor the other, it is both” (MMPPP p448). Mind, and the relative flow in mind are inseparable, like form is inseparable from its space-nature and as space-nature is inseparable from the forms appear in it. A ”‘world,’ with its double moment of sedimentation and spontaneity, is at the center of consciousness. Those two moments are [...] interwoven and inseparable aspects of a single, unified phenomenon” (MMPVI, Xiii). A non-dual/ space-like/ absolute mind encompasses all lights, reflections, mirroring, and condensed structures, including subconscious tendencies and outer appearances, within its vastness. It is through the spontaneous and natural manifestation-tendency of the absolute mind that a flux of light, akin to a relative-level "fireworks," continually unfolds in the absolute and gives rise to our experienced relative world. Ultimately, this light shines into and is perceived by another hologram we refer to as our bodies.
He suggest to liberate our everyday consciousness and recognise „ultimate consciousness” (MMPPP p448), that is the nature of our mind.
Our present experience resides in the dualistic nature of Relative consciousness, which is shaped by our perceptions: ”Perception gives me a “field of presence” in the broad sense that it spreads out according to two dimensions: the dimension of here–there and the dimension of past–present–future.” (MMPPP, p277). Here, the field of presence means, that the mind is not only space-like, but also aware.
At the same time the good news we hear from Merleau-Ponty is, that whether we are consciously aware of something or just experience the world with our perception, our mind does not change, just the relative pictures come and go on the absolute movie screen. 3D plays in 4D, we may say it in a modern way. „Attention again becomes a light that does not itself change with the objects illuminated, and once again “the specific modes and directions of intention” are replaced by empty acts of attention.” (MMPPP p30) says Merleau-Ponty. Thus, effortlessly, we find a reliable anchor in our own mind, a point of trust we can depend on. In Mind We Trust - as if it were inscribed on the dollar bill.
Without recognizing the space-like nature of the absolute, one may mistakenly identify the space-awareness nature of the mind as an individual "I." However, the initial step towards aligning with the absolute is the intellectual understanding at the relative level according to which we have the mental capacity to exercise control over our thoughts and shape our perception of the world. Therefore, we bear responsibility for our mindsets, as we are the creators of our own reality.
Additionally, according to Merleau-Ponty we must realize that the understanding of the absolute cannot be attained through others; it resides within us. Thus, we must first explore and understand our own minds before seeking to understand the minds of others. Moreover, the relative "I" that we presently experience is a representation of the absolute mind. Consequently, our most direct and innate connection to the absolute lies within ourselves.
Merleau-Ponty puts it like this: ”I am not a “living being,” a “man,” nor even a “consciousness,” possessing all of the characteristics that zoology, social anatomy, and inductive psychology acknowledge in these products of nature or history. Rather, I am the absolute source.” (MMPPP xxii) Merleau-Ponty's understanding of space-nature and the absolute differs from Nietzsche's concept of the Superman or Husserl's notion of the individuum that defines its world based on its perceptions. Merleau-Ponty's perspective is not focused on the development of an idealized or transcendent individual, but rather on the exploration of the self and its relationship to the absolute. He emphasizes the importance of understanding the interconnectedness of the absolute and the relative, and how the absolute can be discovered through introspection and self-awareness. By resting in one's own inner world, examining one's thoughts, perceptions, how they emerge, play around and dissolve back to mind, one can gain insight into the fundamental nature of reality and the interconnection between the absolute and the relative.
Merleau-Ponty also expresses this thought as: „a me more intimate to myself than me who thinks my dream or my perception when I limit myself to dreaming or to perceiving, a me who possesses the true substance of my dream and of my perception while I only have the appearance of this.” (MMPPP p303) According to his perspective, Merleau-Ponty suggests that our absolute mind represents our essence in a more intimate way than our relative consciousness, which operates within the framework of an everyday "me." This relative "me" is engaged in a dream-like state of consciousness, encompassing the objects and experiences of its relative reality.
Similarily, according to the teachings of great yogis in Buddhism, such as Saraha, Nagarjuna, Padmasambhava, the Karmapas and others, the world appears solid and real to us because of our deeply ingrained beliefs and fixed ideas about it. We cling to this perceived reality so stubbornly that it can even cause us pain, as it threatens our imagined sense of self. However, these enlightened masters who play with elements effortlessly like a child plays in the sand suggest that the entire world is akin to a hollow dream, a holographic manifestation that we create in our consciousness, ourselves.
By realizing the illusory nature of this dream, we can free ourselves from its constraints and experience a deeper reality beyond its apparent solidity.
The challenge of comprehending the absolute beyond the relative, or as Merleau-Ponty puts it, achieving "liberated consciousness," (MMPPP, p437) lies in the resistance of our relative consciousness to embrace the space-like intuitive mind beneath it. Fearful of losing its relative identity, our consciousness seeks to safeguard its limited status.
„Consciousness can be seen attempting to maintain its superstructures even though their foundation has collapsed. It mimics its customary operations, but without the power of obtaining their intuitive realization” (MMPVI, p416). Our ego employs cunning strategies to validate its existence, yet when we truly grasp the essence of our absolute mind, there is no turning back from that realization. Once we have recognized and embraced the nature of our absolute mind, it becomes a fearless, joyful, unshakable foundation.
To liberate ourselves from the grip of the dream-like reality, it is necessary to delve into a deep understanding or absorbtion of the workings of space-nature and awareness.
Merleau-Ponty's question, "How do we manage to be aware of anything?" (MMPPP viii) raises a fundamental inquiry into the nature of consciousness itself. By investigating the mechanisms and processes by which we become aware of our experiences, we can gain insight into the nature of awareness and its relationship to our perception of the world.
To undersand awareness, Merleau-Ponty asks „How do we manage to be aware of anything?” (MMPPP viii) In Philosophy, is often referred to as the 'meta' question of consciousness. Many philosophers have attempted to answer it; however, to provide a valid response, one must first acquire a comprehensive understanding of the nature of mind and consciousness. The only path to attain this understanding is by delving into the absolute nature of mind and subsequently exploring the emergence of the relative nature of consciousness from it, thereby establishing a deeper comprehension of their interrelationship.
Based on this understanding, the answer to the 'meta' question of consciousness is very simple. The 'meta' aspect of consciousness is the mind itself, as consciousness emerges within and is a phenomenon of the mind. While we could attempt to formulate the 'meta' question of mind intellectually, we would encounter a fundamental challenge. Logical thoughts or conceptualizations, such as "What is this?" or "Where does it come from?" on ”When did it appear?”, hold significance only within the 3D relative framework. In the 4D absolute, all intellectual questions lose their meaning, as the 4D encompasses and manifests everything in 3D, much like how we create 2D drawings on paper. On this level, it is not solely the shape of the drawing that matters, but rather the emergence of the ink and the essential nature movement that brings it to life.
To explore how consciousness manifests in the mind, we must transcend the constraints of time and the 3D context. In the realm of 4D, the concept of "When?" loses its meaning as time ceases to exist. Therefore, questions such as "When did consciousness appear?"(time) or "How does it appear?"(movement) become irrelevant as they are tied to the notion of time. In the 4D perspective, the 3D concept of time, which is actually change caused by movement, translates into timelessness or eternity. From this vantage point, consciousness is not something that emerged or was created within space. Rather, awareness has always been an inherent quality of space-time since the -literally said- beginningless times.
Also, scientific discoveries, such as the concept of space curvature (Einstein's theory of general relativity) and the relativity of time (influenced by gravity and motion), have the potential to shatter the rigid dogmas we learned in school about a solid and fixed reality. This abstract understanding may be challenging to grasp, still, as aspiring philosophers, we need to embrace this paradigm shift in our thinking.
The existence of awareness in our 3D experience suggests its presence in the essence of 4D. The capabilities and qualities of any manifestation are inherent to its essence, and awareness is no exception. Our subconscious patterns or knowledge of the 4D realm are demonstrated by our ability to comprehend and engage in discussions about it.
Additionally, quantum physics offers compelling evidence for the existence of parallel universes within space and the intriguing behavior of virtual particles that can travel forwards and backwards in time. It also delves into the role of the mind as a conductor in shaping our reality.
Furthermore, accomplished meditation masters, with their deep understanding of the 4D mind, can provide profound insights into its workings. Their remarkable intuition, extending beyond the confines of time, serves as tangible evidence of the limitless potential of the mind. In their explanations, these masters effortlessly elucidate the nature of the 4D mind, akin to recalling mundane details such as what they ate for breakfast.
Therefore Merleau-Ponty adds, that we shall develop the „power of obtaining their intuitive realization” (MMPPP p416), because without that we wonder in the dark.
Similarly to the aforementioned phenomenologists, who incorporated Buddhism-related ideas from their own perspectives, Merleau-Ponty also delved into the Buddhist perspective on awareness preceding cognized thoughts and the formation of relative tendencies in the mind based on perceptions. He acknowledged the timeless and aware nature of the absolute mind and viewed the world as a wondrous dream where our streams of consciousness reflect one another. Merleau-Ponty recognized that liberation from the cyclical nature of existence can be attained by acknowledging the illusory nature of reality, a recognition that can only be achieved through introspection. He emphasized that the key to unlocking this understanding lies within each of us, akin to the key of Pandora's box in our pocket.
The phenomenologist JP Sartre (-1980) was one of the most famous philosophers among the hippie aera who had a similarly in-debth understanding of Buddhism as Bergson, Heidegger, Merleau-Ponty and WT Stace (-1967) had. Sartre clearly stated: „… consciousness is a Nothingness. Yet as a Nothingness it is also a revelation of Being.” (JPSBN, Xiv) This is almost like reading the Heart Sutra’s core statement of „form is emptiness, emptiness is form, form and emptines are inseparable.” He also formulates the unity of space-nature and phenomena as a metaphoric joke: „Nothingness lies coiled in the heart of being-like a worm.” (JPSBN, Xxii)
Sartre expanded upon and rectified the dualistic flaw in Husserl's phenomenology by asserting that „the Ego and the world are both objects of consciousness” (JPSBN, Xii) He skillfully distinguished between the dualistic and relative experience of the world, which he referred to as the "world of reflection," and the non-dualistic and absolute nature of timeless space-nature of mind. Sartre also highlighted the self-deception we engage in by mistakenly identifying our inner awareness with an "I." "Everything happens as if consciousness constituted the Ego as a false image of itself, as if consciousness were hypnotized by this Ego which it has established and were absorbed in it." (JPSBN, Xii)
Based on his understanding of the space-nature of everything, Sartre straightforwardly asserts, "There is no God." „For if God is consciousness, he is integrated in the totality. And if by his nature he is a being beyond consciousness (that is, an in-itself which would be its own foundation) still the totality can appear to him only as object (in that case he lacks the totality's internal integration as the subjective effort to apprehend the self) or as subject (then since God is not this subject, he can only experience it without knowing it). Thus no point of view on the totality is conceivable; the totality has no 'outside' and the very question of the meaning of the 'underside' is stripped of meaning. We cannot go further." (JPSBN, p302) "Everything happens as if the world, man, and man-in-the-world succeeded in realizing only a missing God." (JPSBN, p623)
Sartre refers to his philosophical stance as atheistic humanism. However, some argue that a more accurate description would be non-theistic humanism, as Sartre was not actively opposing or engaging with religious entities but rather formulating his own independent perspective.
He reasoned that consciousness, which he refers to as awareness, is a quality that exists within or is intertwined with space. Therefore, it is also the source of any appearance or experience within space. „The existence of consciousness comes from consciousness itself. By that we need not understand that consciousness "derives from nothingness." There can not be "nothingness of consciousness" before consciousness. … Consciousness is prior to nothingness and "is derived" from being.” (JPSBN, Iv) While Sartre rejected the idea of a creator God, he acknowledged the role of space-like mind in the projection and experience of the world.
In connection to this, Sartre wrote: "When an external object is perceived, even if consciousness is not its own object: it is a non-positional consciousness of itself." In Sartre's view, when we observe the external world, we are essentially perceiving our own minds. Whatever arises in our consciousness, whether it be objects, thoughts, or feelings, is a reflection of our own mind. When we become aware of these phenomena, our mind also becomes aware of itself, as everything arises within its own nature. It's like a mirror that, when focused on the images reflected in it, simultaneously sees its own inherent luminosity in which the images appear. To gain such an understanding, one must recognize the inherent emptiness of the transient images in the mirror and perceive that the ever-changing appearances in space share the same nature.
Sartre held the belief that the self is just an illusion and that every appearance has a fundamentally hollow nature. When we define or objectify something, it automatically introduces the false interpretation of a separate and inherently real self. Objectification can only occur through the perspective of an observing subject, which implies the existence of a subject in order to objectify. Therefore, Sartre suggests ”taking the "I" and the "Me" out of consciousness and by viewing consciousness as absolute and non-personal” (JPSBN Xii). According to Sartre, deep understanding reveals that the idea of a "me" is just a concept. Sartre emphasizes that in the dualistic relative view, awareness is still present, but it mistakenly identifies itself as an independent "I." However, he suggests that this space-like awareness has the freedom and choice not to confine itself to the limitations of egoic identification. Instead, it can wholeheartedly relax into the expansive, all-pervading, boundless, joyful, and intuitive nature of mind.
Using the cinema analogy, when we own the cinema, we also own all the movies being projected. While we don't perceive ourselves as actors within the movies, we can still enjoy activities like getting popcorn, exploring the movie library, and inviting friends to join us in watching the projected films. Sartre expressed this by stating that ”...the Ego and the world are both objects of consciousness” (JPSBN Xii).
In essence, Sartre suggests recognizing the illusory nature of the ego, embracing the non-dual awareness that underlies all experiences, and understanding that both the ego and the world are objects of consciousness.
Further on, in his book "Being and Nothingness," Sartre explores the search for the meaning of life and states: ”Consciousness can always pass beyond the existent, not toward its being, but toward the meaning of this being. … The phenomenon of being is not being, as we have already noted.” (JPSBN, Lxiii) Thus, Sartre suggests that the meaning of existence and being lies in the space-nature, and that the meaning of life is to recognize the space-nature of mind, including the awareness of the hollow nature of the ego-idea.
Sartre also highlights the issue that the mind is afraid to fully experience its freedom. "Consciousness is afraid of its own spontaneity" (JPSBN p17). This fear of experiencing full freedom arises from the influence of previous negative impressions stored in the subconscious, which contribute to the formation of the habitual "Me." This obscured layer creates a sense of confinement, while secretly yearning for liberation.
When we initially grasp the concept of the hollow space-nature through intellectual understanding rather than direct experience in meditation, it can give rise to tension or insecurity. We may question its validity or dismiss it as mere exaggeration. As long as the understanding of the hollow space-nature remains at the conceptual level and has not transformed into a direct and experiential realization, doubts may continue to arise. Conceptual understanding can be subject to skepticism and uncertainty, leaving room for the ego to question and resist the notion of its illusory nature.
When we attempt to find stability and grasp onto concepts to overcome the limitations of concepts themselves, we may realize that the ground we seek is not as solid as we believed. In this search, we may find ourselves questioning what can be truly relied upon and trusted. We may ask ourselves: What can we grasp, hold onto, and trust in this world? What truth can we rely on and relate to in this reality? In the absence of a profound answer emerging in our brains, we may feel as if we're falling from a rock wall, desperately reaching out to find something to hold onto. Then, we may continue: When our ego is gone, are we gone? In this moment, what happens right now?
Sartre acknowledged that doubt may arise in individuals due to the ego's efforts to undermine the exploration of the ultimate nature of the mind. The ego seeks security in its own ideas and avoids questioning its illusory nature. In doing so, the relative consciousness convinces itself that the ego's sense of separateness is the true reality, disregarding the deeper nature of mind. "Everything happens as if consciousness constituted the Ego as a false image of itself, as if consciousness were hypnotized by this Ego which it has established and were absorbed in it" (JPSBN Xii). It is similar to a proud person who, when injured, tries to justify the injury as intentional. The ego tends to be keen at pointing out flaws in others but often overlooks its own shortcomings.
At the same time, the ego's fear of losing its foundation is a natural response. However, if we seek to detach from or eliminate the ego, we misunderstand the essence of the matter. The notion of a self as a mere appearance is not inherently problematic. While we may possess a body and a relative-consciousness linked to its brain, we are not limited to these aspects. The issue lies in our identification with them. It is totally fine and lifelike to utilize the concept of "I" on the relative level, as it serves practical purposes such as protecting our loved ones, working, and fulfilling responsibilities. The problem arises when we mistakenly believe that we are this "I." Instead, we should recognize our true nature as awareness—an eternal, boundless, non-dual space that effortlessly and joyfully manifests energies, feelings, and phenomena. Rather than battling the illusion of the ego, we embrace it within the vast expanse of space that we really are.
On the other hand, Sartre asserts that consciousness inherently yearns for freedom, to transcend the confines of its projected reality and become the master of its own existence, the owner of the cinema, joining others who have cultivated profound awareness and wisdom.
At the same time, Sartre adds that the reason we can discuss the hollowness of the world of appearance is because space itself spontaneously manifests relative appearances. The body, relative consciousness, and the world as we know it are all part of these relative appearances.
”Nothingness can nihilate itself only on the foundation of being” (JPSBN p2). Sartre simply means space or voidness when mentioning nothingness. He also elaborates on it saying that the only reasonable way talking about voidness is to compare it to appearances; the voidness of appearances. If there were no appearances what kind of thing would the void be the void?
Then what is this life? It is the mind's free play. Absolute awareness is like a chef creating various dishes, while our relative consciousness is like scrambled eggs in a pan. Although we may not yet realize that our mind is that of the chef's.
Therefore, Sartre helps us understand. He distinguishes between thethetic awareness, which involves thoughts or concepts, and non-thetic awareness, which simply experiences itself without any conceptual content. This non-thetic awareness, also known as space-awareness, is a state of mind that cannot be fully grasped through intellectual understanding alone. This is what Sartre encourages us to explore and familiarize ourselves with. This non-thetic awareness - or as we usually call it in this book space-awareness - is a state of mind that we can not experience by reading a book and using our intellect is full of wisdom, joy and active compassion. We can though experience it by meditation, that is able to shift our consciousness towards a deeper understanding, that transcends its limits. We will elaborate on these methods further on in this book so our intellectual idealistic knowledge about it may gradually shift from our brains to our noble hearts and become pragmatic experience.
N. Goodman (-1998) also advocated for mind-training and suggested continuously testing and reflecting on our intuition to improve it. By applying trial and error, we can develop greater intuitive abilities over time. Similarly, W. Sellars (-1989), a naturalistic realist, shared the same view and emphasized that with intention, one can acquire immediate knowledge not only about their own mental tendencies and circumstances but also about others'. Sellars referred to this as non-inferential knowledge, which does not require explanation but can be sensed, experienced, or intuited for its meaning. In this form of knowledge, there is no need for explicit articulation or explanation; it is sufficient to sense, experience, or sense-experience its intuitive meaning.
JPG Ricœur (-2005), a French philosopher, was a hermeneutic phenomenologist, belonging to a branch of phenomenology that originated with Heidegger. His focus was on the process of interpreting texts and uncovering their deeper meanings through intuitive associations. Ricœur emphasized the significance of inner meaning or self-meaning, as Sellars did, considering it more important than external or influenced meaning.
HG Gadamer, a German philosopher, focused on the significance of relative meaning rooted in the subconscious. He shared similar views with Merleau-Ponty and Jung, highlighting the impact of the subconscious on our daily lives. Gadamer emphasized that the meaning of habitual decisions or actions in the subconscious cannot be interpreted in isolation, as they are manifestations of a coherent set of impressions within the flow of subconscious meanings. He referred to this flow as "historical consciousness," a continuous stream that we shape from at least the time of infancy and that evolves over time through our own actions. Gadamer argued that it is natural for individuals to form predictions or prejudices based on their historical consciousness, as these predictions are the result of accumulated information within a particular historical context or community.
Gadamer viewed prejudices as logical conclusions drawn from accumulated historical knowledge and experience, a kind of historical intuitionism. He rightly criticized other thinkers who held prejudices against prejudices themselves.
In contrast to the phenomenologists' focus on conscious perception and subconscious-based judgment, JJC Smart, a British-Australian philosopher, presented the mind-brain theory, which explains reality in terms of the chemical and physical states of the brain. He was also one of the first philosophers to propose the existence of at least a fourth dimension in addition to the three dimensions of space. Smart argued that if a third dimension exists beyond the two, then it is plausible to consider the existence of a fourth dimension beyond the three. According to Smart, our reality is a 4D space-time manifold, which includes space and the three dimensions of time (past, present, and future). He further suggested that from a 4D perspective, the concept of 3D time or 3D space becomes an illusion, as a higher reality supersedes a lower one. Unfortunately, Smart did not explicitly connect this 4D nature of reality with our awareness or consciousness.
The New Christian Discovery: 'Make Money and Be Ethical to Serve God'
While Eastern philosophies and their derivatives found their way into the Western world, there were still philosophers who drew inspiration from Western monotheistic religions. One such philosopher was Max Weber (-1920), who sought to bring the benefits of Christian religious perspectives to people. With the advent of the industrial revolution, wealth and fame quickly accumulated among investors and factory owners, enabling some fortunate individuals to live lavish lifestyles previously reserved for the nobility. The ethical question then arose: What is the proper way to use this wealth from a Christian perspective?
Weber provided an explanation for those who achieved success in business, suggesting that success is influenced by a combination of causal factors. He posited that some of these factors, such as God's gifts or fortuitous circumstances, are external and beyond our control. These external factors can be seen as blessings or rewards for our goodness. On the other hand, our internal factors, including our behavior, speech, and mindset, are within our own domain of influence. Weber believed that the interplay between these external and internal factors determines our success in both life and business.
Weber advised against striving or racing solely for business success in life, as the complexity of external and internal factors makes it unattainable for everyone. Instead, he recommended adopting a more relaxed perspective. The key, according to Weber, was to choose responsibility and take ethics seriously. By doing so, individuals could be certain that they were planting the right causal seeds for a better future. This path requires self-control, but it is the surest way to improve one's circumstances. Weber emphasized Christian religious ethics and described the right causal seeds as actions that align with the preferences of their God.
While according to Gentile, ethical responsibility arises from reflective awareness and is inwardly directed ("I shall increase my awareness of my thoughts and behaviors, aiming to bring happiness to others, thereby cultivating my own happiness as well"), Weber's perspective on ethical responsibility is directed outward, towards the Christian God ("I shall strive to be ethical, seeking to please God, and trust that He will determine my happiness"), attributing responsibility to God for the outcomes.
Weber comes to the conclusion that if people adopt an ethical Christian perspective, the act of making money is not condemned but appreciated, as long as the way in which money is used serves God's purposes. Christian ethics have evolved from a standpoint of condemning money (dark-orange approach) to accepting its use (bright-orange approach). Priests no longer condemned the accumulation of wealth that came with the industrial revolution, but rather supported it. In return, wealthy businessmen often provided support to the Church.
Also Schiller, the notable pragmatist, in addition to being a Christian believer, shared similarities with Weber. His exploration of Buddhist literature led him to embrace the concept of cause and effect, but with a unique perspective. Schiller expanded upon W. James's pragmatism by incorporating the notion that cause and effect are rewarded by the ”goodness of God.”
There exists a distinction between acting morally for one's own sake or for the sake of God. Similarly, there is a distinction between earning money for personal gain and earning money to assist others or to fulfill a sense of purpose in serving God by doing good for people.
However, if these approaches prove effective in fostering personal growth and encouraging individuals to assist others, they should be acknowledged and appreciated. The focus should be on the positive outcomes and the positive impact on individuals and society, regardless of the specific motivations behind these actions. Thus, Christianity and Eastern religions can be harmoniously combined on the level of behavior, causality and motivation. Yet, at deeper levels such as the subconscious and the nature of mind, Eastern traditions hold a significant advantage over Christian knowledge.
The Arrival of the "Big-Brained" Logicians and the Harm to Humanity
While continental philosophers, primarily based in Europe, delved into profound explorations of consciousness and mind, the intellectual landscape in the English/British sphere took a pragmatic turn, shifting from ideology to practicality. In the United States, pragmatists established a pragmatic foundation, while in the United Kingdom, analytic philosophy gained prominence. Analytic philosophy focused on resolving logical and linguistic issues, even delving into the smallest everyday problems that could lead to larger challenges. This movement was often referred to as the linguistic turn, as it carefully considered the formation and use of language in philosophical analysis.
Cambridge philosophers G.E. Moore (-1958) and B. Russell (-1970) made notable contributions in the critique of idealism, paving the way for the development of analytic philosophy, which focused on the pursuit of visible/ objective/ material ”facts”. They were joined by language experts such as G. Frege (-1925) and L. Wittgenstein (-1951), who also played key roles in challenging the prevailing idealistic views within British philosophy. This shift in perspective can be seen as an attempt to keep up with the intellectual prowess of influential thinkers like Kant and the German transcendentalists. However, rather than using transcendental views to surpass the capabilities of the brain, this new wave called analytical philosophy aimed to justify the significance and inherent limitations of the brain's logic and reasoning abilities.
Simultaneously, phenomenology also faced criticism from the analytic philosophers, who utilized language as their primary tool for analysis and inquiry. From the complex matters of understanding the mind, phenomena, space, and appearances, the focus dropped to the more accessible topics of ethical discussions and determining what is good or bad.
On the linguistic side of analysis, J.L. Austin (-1960) focused on the issue of universals, highlighting that words such as "grey," "circle," or "real" can have different meanings for different individuals. Each person may perceive these terms differently based on their own experiences and perspectives. Therefore, the search for an absolute truth that applies universally loses its significance.
In a similar vein, the English philosopher Sir A.J. "Freddie" Ayer (-1989) pursued a linguistic approach to logical justification. Advocating for logical positivism, he considered only those statements meaningful that could be logically or empirically justified. For example, the statement "This chair exists" could pass the test, while "God exists" could not be verified in the same way. As a result, Ayer regarded texts concerning God as unverifiable and categorized them as nonsensical. He later became the president of the British Humanist Association.
Frege, the esteemed mathematician and logician from the University of Jena, was hailed as one of the most influential logicians since Aristotle. However, in light of studying Kant's works, it becomes apparent that Frege's views may not reach the same level of intellectual brilliance as those of Kant. Nevertheless, Frege's expertise in language allowed him to develop intricate language structures and processes that served analytic purposes in everyday discourse. He aimed to provide solid linguistic tools for mathematical reasoning.
Next to the linguistic part, the emergence of logic-oriented part of analytic philosophy began with the contributions of G.E. Moore, who played a vital role in revitalizing meta-ethics. One central question posed in this field is: "What defines goodness and badness?" A key concept that gained prominence within meta-ethics is "ethical intuitionism," a term introduced by J.S. Mill. Ethical intuitionism, a branch of moral philosophy, asserts that there are moral aspects that we intuitively perceive as right or wrong, good or bad. While pleasure is often associated with goodness, Moore challenged the notion that pleasure alone determines what is good. For instance, he questioned whether indulging in excessive amounts of sugar solely for the sake of pleasure can be considered truly good.
Moore maintained that moral intuitions are self-evident, yet they may not always provide reliable proofs or reasoning. Interestingly, he distanced himself from being labeled as a traditional intuitionist who regards intuitions as absolute truths. Instead, Moore highlighted the subjective nature of mixing intuitive impulses or beliefs with logical statements within a sentence. He used the example of "It is raining, but I do not believe it is raining" to illustrate the potential ambiguity and subjectivity of truth. This example served as a tool for criticizing phenomenologists and their approach to truth, contrasting it with the perspective of analytic philosophers.
While Moore saw thinking and acting as inherently connected, B.A.O. Williams (-2003) offered a contrasting viewpoint. Building upon Moore's philosophy, Williams argued that thinking and action should be treated as distinct entities. According to Williams, it is possible for individuals to engage in irrational or illogical thinking, yet still exhibit rational behavior based on the specific context or situation they find themselves in.
Nevertheless, the key figure in the development and dissemination of analytic thinking was the philosopher Bertrand Russell. Despite being the godson of J.S. Mill, Russell’s apple fell quite far from the tree. He diverged from ethical intuitionism and embraced analytic philosophy. He followed in the footsteps of G.E. Moore until his acquaintance with Santayana, who held controversial views on race and influenced Russell's shift in focus. After following in Moore's footsteps for some time, Bertrand Russell's perspective began to shift when he became acquainted with G. Santayana. Santayana, known for his support of Darwin's ideas and controversial concepts of "inferior races" and "inferior stock," developed a close friendship with Russell's brother Frank Russell, the 2nd Earl Russell. It was during their encounters, including meetings on Frank's 100-ton yacht, that Santayana influenced Bertrand's views, diverting his attention away from moral intuitivism. As a result, Russell launched a vigorous attack on idealism, subjecting it to intense criticism.
His efforts proved highly successful, leading to a significant shift in British philosophy from idealism to analytic philosophy, which emphasized formal logic and linguistics and advocated for a common-sense understanding of reality independent of theological influence. Earl Russell, in particular, believed that all social, political, or economic circumstances could be dismantled and understood through detailed analysis using language and logic. Their impact was such that, even today (100 years later), nearly a century later, the general English population often mocks idealism while they should be ridiculing those who cling to the notion of a solid world. However, it is worth noting that since, the advancement of quantum physics has played a crucial role in challenging the notion of a solid reality. Had Bertrand Russell been exposed to the scientific developments of the 21st century, he would undoubtedly have been astounded with eyes grown big by the disparity between the solid reality he perceived and the revelations of quantum physics.
Nevertheless, it is worth exploring Bertrand Russell's philosophy in more depth, as it provides valuable insights. According to some sources, such as Paul Glumaz, during the industrial revolution, there was a significant focus on development and the rise of the middle class, which led to a shift in power away from the elite. As an Earl and someone who understood the concerns of the elite, Russell developed a philosophy that aimed to discourage the middle class in order to protect the power of the elite. As a result, he attacked science itself.
Bertrand Russell's philosophy focused on reducing everything in the world, including mathematics, to pure logic, which led him to go after science. He sought to diminish the role of feelings and intuition, and instead emphasized the supremacy of logic. Over time, Russell effectively reduced the overall style of reasoning to logic.
As a result, he viewed humanistic discussions and agreements as merely products of logical reasoning. However, this approach disregarded the complexity of purely logic-based decision-making, involves numerous factors and influences such as including various factors like air humidity, solar flare eruptions, and the quality of sleep, all of which can have an impact on people's moods and overall well-being. Considering the multitude of decision-making situations we encounter in our daily lives, it is simply impossible to possess all the information (or "facts") about every single factor involved at all times. Therefore, by highlighting the importance of logical ”facts”, Russell's influence tended to undermine people's confidence in their own decision-making abilities by considering themselves having lower status compared to philosophers.
Russell's influence discouraged the application of artistic and intuitive thinking, prioritizing left-brained logic and analytical reasoning. Russell's philosophy aligned with the interests of the elite during the industrial revolution and he did everything to protect that.
Russell eventually joined forces with H.G. Wells (-1946), known as the "father of science fiction." Wells embraced a Darwinian perspective that ethical matters are shaped by the principle of "survival of the fittest." He advocated for a globalist approach and believed that global improvement could only be achieved through scientific thinking and the establishment of a world government or "world directorate” or”world commonwealth.” Wells' vision was anti-democratic and dictatorial, as he envisioned this directorate having control over population, disease, and production. He even proposed that this global directorate would eventually evolve into a "world religion." Wells articulated his ideas in his book "The Open Conspiracy," a work that today finds support from organizations like Greenpeace and Amnesty International.
Russell was highly influenced by Wells' book and actively collaborated with him to establish various Open Conspiracy organizations worldwide involving local polititians and the local elite. These organizations promoted their ideas, which included proposals such as replacing classical music with drum/beat-oriented music, advocating for the widespread availability and legalization of hallucinatory drugs like marijuana, and spreading Russell's philosophical thoughts globally. Russell and Wells aimed for a cultural shift where people would embrace rock/rave music, possibly engage in drug use, and feel uncertain in their decision-making while still taking the world seriously and seeking "facts."
Russell's view emphasized the demoralization and uncertainty of the middle class in their decision-making, while simultaneously suggesting that the ruling class should retain privileges related to education, culture, music, and health, preserving traditional values within their elite circle.
Furthermore, Russell saw nuclear power as a means to achieve the goals of the Open Conspiracy organizations effectively. In an article, he controversially suggested that the USA should use nuclear weapons on the Soviet Union, arguing that only through a nuclear war could a one-world government be established to bring an end to the conflict.
At the same time as a Hegelian antithesis, Russell launched an Anti-Nuclear Peace movement, advocating for disarmament in order to confuse and control peace-loving people. Russell's support of the Cuban Missile Crisis instilled fear and insecurity among US citizens, fostering a mindset of instinctual resistance against being terrorized that has endured since then. This psychological mindset inherently urges US citizens to take a strong stance against the ”war on terror”, and therefore this trauma-based phraze sell well amongst the population in case of starting a war against Iraq and Afganistan.
Nevertheless, during Russell's era, Harry Truman assumed the presidency of the United States. Influenced by Churchill, who was heavily influenced by Russell, Truman made the decision to drop the nuclear bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki.
Few instructive quotes from Bertrand Russell sourced from Wikiquote: ”I hate the world and almost all the people in it.” "I hate the planet and the human race – I am ashamed to belong to such a species.” ”How much would it do if one could exterminate the human race?” And another quote from ”TPM Philosophy Quote”: ”The only thing I strongly feel worthwile would be to murder as many people as possible so as to dimish the amount of conscioussness around the world.”
Based on Russell's activities, including his writings such as "Satan in the Suburbs and Other Stories" and its second volume "Nightmares of Eminent Persons," it can be assumed with a good chance that his materialistic and brain-oriented perspective may have not been a wonde: Russell may have followed satanist doctrines.
Eastern Inspiration: Further Insights from Great Thinkers
Russell's former teacher, A.N. Whitehead (-1947), believed that we should perceive the world ”as a web of interrelated processes of which we are integral parts, so that all of our choices and actions have consequences for the world around us.” He is renowned for his process philosophy, which says, that even though we experience the world as being solid and real, the world is a dynamic flux of constant change. This impermanence creates a sense of being ”haunted by terror”, which Whitehead refers to as "the ultimate evil in the temporal world."
Therefore, Whitehead rejected the notion of "objects," seeing them as composed of movements and arising from movements. Instead, he viewed the world not as a collection of separate objects, but as an interconnected flow of movements. In this stream of movement, we often forget the source of the movement (space) and perceive only the movements themselves. We consider sensory impulses like light reflecting from objects as reality, when in fact it is our connected associations and thought patterns that shape our reality. Once associations occur, consciousness assigns words to these impulses, such as "chair" - a favorite example of Whitehead's. However, the meaning of that group of molecules triggering a visual impulse can vary among individuals. Artists may appreciate the beauty of its curves, while hard workers may see it as a source of luxurious relaxation.
In this stream of movement, we forget the source of the movement (that is space) in such a respect, that we think that only the movement exists. Furthermore, our perception of reality goes beyond the sensory impulses themselves, such as light frequencies reflecting from objects. It is not solely the light impulses that create electric impulses in our visual organs; rather, our reality is shaped by the connected associations and thought patterns that arise from these sensory inputs. Once associations occur, consciousness assigns words to these impulses, such as "chair" - a favorite example of Whitehead's. However, the meaning of that group of molecules triggering a visual impulse can vary among individuals. Artists may appreciate the beauty of its curves, while hard workers may see it as a source of luxurious relaxation.
To explain this phenomenon, Whitehead draws upon the Buddhist example of "mirror and pictures." He distinguishes between the causal world of movement (the pictures in the mirror) and the "pure sense perception" (the unchanging shining mirror itself). This concept parallels the relative and absolute levels of reality found in Buddhism. In the realm of "pure sense perception," appearances are immediately present, and all-pervading knowledge, or intuition, spontaneously arises wherever one taps into it.
The pinnacle of language is thus when we form what we speak based on intuition. We may start experiencing with it with the method suggested by M. Huemer (1969-), who compares intuition to a kind of seeming. „It seems to me that..” He grasps the phenomena as being a feeling in prior or during verbal reasoning.
Not only Russell, but L.J.J. Wittgenstein (-1951) found inspiration in Moore's example about the rain: "It is raining, but I do not believe it is raining." Upon hearing Moore explain this in a lecture, Wittgenstein was so intrigued that he rushed over to him in the middle of the night, requesting him to repeat the entire lecture.
Wittgenstein was captivated by the method of expressing dual polarities within a single sentence, which could stretch the limits of logical thinking to the point of collapse and suspension of logical thinking leading to a recognition of the sky-like nature of the mind where clouds of logic come and go. This moment can be likened to a computer's blue screen when it freezes. Similarly, by inducing an override in consciousness, it suspends the flow of thoughts, allowing space-awareness to take over the main role.
According to several philosophers such as C. Gudmunsen, K.T. Fann, K.N. Jayatilleke, J. Garfield, C.W. Huntington, I. Waldo, and others, Wittgenstein's exploration of the voidness of thoughts and words bears resemblance and parallels to Nagarjuna's Madhyamaka philosophy. Additionally, Wittgenstein's method of employing sentences with dual-polarity meanings bears resemblance to the huataos of Zen Buddhism practiced in Japan (also known as Chan in China). According to some Buddhists, Wittgenstein's eyes in the photos suggest that he practiced meditation.
Wittgenstein enjoyed challenging people by placing them on the mental edge, testing their ability to remain in the middle without leaning towards either side. His renowned drawing of the duck-rabbit, which can be perceived as both a duck and a rabbit, exemplifies this dual-directional approach, as well.
Wittgenstein acknowledged that the meanings of words are not exact, emphasizing the importance of precision for a philosopher when using language. Through his exploration of linguistics, he sought to convey the relativity inherent in human experience of the world. Our senses offer us subjective and relative information, while the concepts that arise in our minds are constrained by the limitations of language's expressive capacity.
Wittgenstein's student in linguistics, K.N. Jayatilleke (-1970) from Sri Lanka, was a renowned professor of Buddhist philosophy. He emphasized that it is inaccurate to perceive the historical Buddha, Shakyamuni, solely as an idealist as the essece of his teachings is the pursuit to understand the essence of reality. He could not be simply categorized as a humanist, as he also considered utilitarian aspects in handling situations. While not a pure rationalist, he recognized the importance of intuitive insights and incorporated elements of empiricism in a form of meditation practices in his teachings.
Jayatilleke approached Buddhist epistemology with an analytical mindset, seeking to apply the linguistic precision he had learned from Wittgenstein.
Similarly well-known like Jayatilleke, CW Huntington (-2020) was another renowned philosopher and interpreter with profound expertise in the Indian/Hindu Upanishads and Buddhism. He specialized in the study of Sanskrit and Tibetan literature and had a particular interest in translating the Nagarjuna-commentaries of Chandrakirti.
Let us now take a glimpse at a quote he translated, which can provide us with valuable insights on our philosophical journey: „the direct yogic experience of the “selflessness” or “emptiness” of both consciousness and its contents—their lack of inherent existence—is itself liberation from the suffering caused by clinging to reified categories of subject and object.” Reading sentences like these is always a cause for celebration, as they remind us that even with intellectual knowledge alone, understanding the space-nature of phenomena and consistently maintaining this understanding can have profound and transformative long-term effects that guide us on the path to liberation.
With his translations of Nagarjuna's works, Huntington acquired profound insights into the motivations behind Nagarjuna's utilization of intricate logical reasoning in his philosophy, often referred to as skepticism in Western thought. Huntington clarified that Nagarjuna's purpose was not merely to enhance conceptual understanding among his students, but rather to establish a comprehensive system capable of effectively conveying the experiential realization of voidness or hollowness through the intellectual faculty.
In addition to his scholarly pursuits, Huntington also made noteworthy observations about the development of Hinduism. He noted that Hinduism reached its zenith with the Advaita Vedanta, a school of thought that emerged in the 8th century. Advaita Vedanta, by blending the dualistic teachings of Samkhya Hinduism with the non-dualistic principles of Buddhism, created a philosophy that emphasizes the non-dual nature of reality. This aligns with the teachings of Yogachara Buddhism, which state that all phenomena appear as reflections within the expansive awareness of the non-dual mind.
P. Carus (-1919), a German-American philosopher, shared an interest in Buddhism and collaborated with the aforementioned DT Suzuki. He actively supported interfaith dialogue and sponsored the works of Professor Suzuki and other Buddhist masters. Carus engaged in comparative religious studies and became an ardent advocate for Suzuki's teachings. He termed his approach "monism" or the "Religion of Science," envisioning a future in which religions would converge into a "cosmic religion" or "cosmic order" embodying "universal truth." This perspective is now recognized as perennialism (later promoted by the Theosophical Society) or universalism (later promoted by T.A. Huxley (-1963)). Perennial philosophy or universalism posits that all religions, whether theistic, multi-theistic, or non-theistic, share a fundamental essence and truth. However, it is common for people to label unfamiliar religious concepts as "mystical" or attribute them to the domain of the unknown or universal truth due to a lack of comprehensive knowledge about each religion. Such labeling reflects the tendency to designate what is not fully understood as "mystical" or as "the mysterious ways of God."
Universalism, by default, pertains to "our own" universe and overlooks the existence of countless other universes, multiverses, and parallel universes. When universalism speaks of "the truth in the universe" or "becoming one with the universe," it refers only to the universe we currently perceive, without mentioning others. For them, the vastness of our universe is enough to evoke a sense of mysticism, making it sufficient to mention it alone for the intended purpose.
Nevertheless, perennial philosophy or universalism is rooted in a kind and compassionate idea that everything has the same universal meaning. Regardless of whether this movement is inspired by Plato's universals or not, it is important to note that these concepts are not entirely suitable from a logical standpoint. This is, because religions are highly different, they don’t carry the same universal meaning or conclusion. Monotheistic religions as Christianity worship a single god and wish to obey it. Multi-theistic religions as Hinduism embrace multiple gods as supportive figures, friends that help in need. The various Buddha figures depicted in Buddhism do not serve as gods, but rather symbolize the embodiment of wisdom, compassion, and other perfect qualities. They act as mirrors, reflecting our own potential and qualities within us. In Hinduism, one can aspire to become a god. In Buddhism, the focus is not on striving to become anything, not even a god. The primary aspiration is to recognize that the ego's desire to become something is merely an idea, an inner compulsion driven by illusion and imagination. These fundamental differences between Buddhism and the other mentioned religions are significant. However, universalism attempts to merge and reconcile these divergent perspectives. Nevertheless, universalism does recognize the aspect of clear light and the possibility of intuitive glimpses into past lives through meditation. While this knowledge may be seen as mystical in the West, it is considered commonplace in the East.
WT Stace (-1967) also embraced Universalism as his philosophical stance. Additionally, he offered a phenomenological elucidation of the "mystical" encounter linked to Buddhism's initial introduction to the Western world. He characterized this encounter as surpassing both subjective and objective domains, labeling it as "transsubjective." Stace asserted that individuals, by relinquishing their ingrained conceptualizations and personal inclinations, could attain a state of "pure consciousness."
Stace further expounded on his philosophical perspective from a "mystical" vantage point. Exploring the energies or frequencies emanating from sound, such as mantras, was initially perceived as "mystical. However, understanding these frequencies and cultivating them within ourselves can have various effects.
For instance, let's consider the phenomena of inner heat. We all possess inner heat; our hands and bodies are warm inside, indicating the presence of energy flow within us. When we learn to handle, strengthen, or direct these energies, they can lead to a comforting inner warmth and a sense of blessedness.
Also, other abilities commonly referred to as "mystical" in the Western world, such as telepathy, remote viewing, manipulation of elements, conscious awareness during dreams, and altering the structure or vibration of the body, in the East are considered as ordinary siddhies that are attainable through dedicated meditation practice. These abilities can be developed by anyone with the right knowledge and guidance, and individuals can seek out teachers to acquire this knowledge. However, it should be noted that not everyone who embarks on this journey will achieve the desired results, as it requires years of committed meditation practice. Many individuals, however, have successfully experienced these qualities. In Hinduism, these abilities, known as powers of realization, are considered the highest forms of realization. On the other hand, Buddhism views them as "ordinary" experiences. Both traditions caution against becoming too attached or fascinated by these experiences, as they are ultimately illusory, just like everything else in the realm of existence. These experiences can be seen as small side roads that divert one from the true path of benefiting others. Taking them too seriously may lead to egoism, which distracts individuals from recognizing the inherent emptiness of the ego and all appearances.
Stace raises the topic of ”the power of remembering their past lives, and thus to provide direct evidence of reincarnation.” (WTSMP) He supports his thesis by suggesting that a certain level of intuition is necessary to recollect these memories. He states, „So the question at issue in intuition, whether for East or for West, is what we can feel, and even more, what we can grasp through such feeling.” (WTSMP)
However, those who have experience with meditation understand that this subject is not as mystical as it may seem. Memories of past lives naturally emerge when one begins to clear away the obstacles obscuring their own clarity of mind. As one's wisdom and understanding of the nature of space improves, intuition becomes sharper and memories become clearer. For instance, the consciousness of the Karmapas does not fade between lifetimes; they remember everything just as we remember what we had for breakfast. When the current 17th Karmapa first encountered Lama Ole in his current life, one of the first things he remarked was, "You changed your hairstyle" (referring to their last meeting in his previous life as the 16th Karmapa). The Karmapa, whose name means "master of karma" or "master of activities," possesses a deep understanding of movement and action. This understanding extends to both past and future events. The Karmapa possesses the ability to recall past lives and has the foresight to see into the future. When a Karmapa nears the end of their life, they are able to provide precise information about their next incarnation, including the location, circumstances, and even the names of their future parents. This makes it easier for the Shamarpas, the second highest-ranking lamas in the Karmapa lineage, to identify the new incarnation of the Karmapa. This unbroken chain of recognition between teacher and student has been ongoing since the 12th century in the Kagyü Lineage of the Karmapa and has served as a model for the Dalai Lamas. With this profound knowledge, we can ask the Karmapa questions about their previous lives, and they can provide accurate and detailed responses. With this profound knowledge, we can ask the Karmapa questions about their previous lives, and they can provide accurate and detailed responses.
Stace also discusses the concepts of samsara (the world full of suffering) and nirvana (the state of mind without suffering and filled with happiness and joy) in his book. He quotes: „The Buddha has declared that Being and non-Being should both be rejected. Neither as Being nor as a non-Being Nirvana therefore is conceived. There is no difference at all Between Nirvana and Samsara.” (WTSMP, p57). However, there are few misunderstandings in these lines.
This is because in the Western world, we have Western brains that think in a Western way, influenced by Western concepts and polarities, such as good or bad, or being or non-being. However, in the East, there is a different perspective that includes space-like awareness as a third aspect. When we translate the concepts of being and non-being to a Western mindset, we may interpret them as life or death. But for Eastern thinkers, they are simply two states of the same eternal space-like awareness. Whether it manifests as space-nature or appearance, it represents the timeless space-awareness of mind.
In this context, the word "reject" may sound too strong. It might have appeared in the writing of Stace as an attempt to effectively convey the Eastern logic to a Western audience. The word "rejecting" here implies seeing through, not taking something seriously, or recognizing its space-like nature. While it is easy to understand the word "reject," its true meaning is not about avoiding or opposing something, but rather transcending it. It is similar to how we do not assign significant importance to a hologram. We do not strive to have a hologram in front of us, nor do we reject having one. Similarly, we do not strive to not have a hologram in front of us, nor do we reject not having one. From the perspective of awareness, there is no difference between a world full of suffering (samsara) and a worldview that is unaffected by any phenomenal impulse (nirvana).
This is the context in which the East refers to the terms of being or non-being and their similarity in their essence.
The recognition of this space-like essence enables us to acquire knowledge of previous or forthcoming existences through the deliberate utilization of our intuition. As Stace eloquently states, it is a sensation that necessitates familiarity or sufficient sensitivity to be discerned. „So the question at issue in intuition, whether for East or for West, is what we can feel, and even more, what we can grasp through such feeling.” (WTSMP) - writes Stance. Our optimal approach entails embracing trial and error as we acclimate ourselves to this phenomenon.
Not only Stace talked about the space-nature of phenomena, but JL Garfield (1955-), an American philosophy professor of Tibetan Buddhism, also made notable contributions. Garfield translated and provided commentary on the Heart Sutra, which encapsulates Nagarjuna's Madyamaka philosophy and serves as the essence of Buddhism. This renowned sutra includes the famous expression: "Form is emptiness, emptiness is form. Form and emptiness are inseparable." In a similar vein, we should consider the profound and influential works of E. Conze (-1979), a German philosopher and Buddhist, who offered commentaries on the Heart Sutra (Prajñāpāramitā). After engaging in meditation during an isolated retreat, Conze relocated to Oxford to work on Sanskrit texts. He held the belief that philosophy merely serves as the initial step toward genuine knowledge. As a subsequent step, one must transition the acquired knowledge from the intellect to the heart through meditation.
This viewpoint is shared by other philosophers as well. Ted Shear, from the University of Colorado, Boulder, proposes a series of steps for cultivating awareness: 1) recognizing the inherent hollowness of everything, 2) maintaining this mindset throughout all activities, and 3) comprehending and firmly grasping the understanding that this is the nature of everyone's mind, while remembering that the concept of an independent self is merely a thought.
Furthermore, spiritual exercises aimed at inner transformation were also known in Greco-Roman antiquity. P. Hadot (-2010) gained fame for uncovering and analyzing these mental practices, most of which sought to alter one's perception. Hadot emphasized that the true purpose of spiritual exercises is to effect profound inner change.
Rodents Show Themselves In Eagles’ Mask: Is Openness Always Good?
In contrast to the soaring greatness of eagles and the parasitic nature of rodents, we shall counterpoint the philosophies of WT Stace, JP Satre, and Merleau-Ponty with the intellectual agony of KR Popper (-1994), who captivated audiences with his Marxist ideas. This Hungarian-Austrian-British-Ashkenazi philosopher gained renown through his critical rationalism, while also being affiliated with the Socialist Workers Party in Austria, which explains the dissemination of his works in the Eastern Bloc countries.
The word "openness" in Popper's philosophy implies a government system where extensive surveillance and control are pervasive, leaving no room for individual freedoms or choices. As Huxley aptly describes, it resembles a "Big Brother" scenario where the government oversees and regulates every aspect of people's lives. In such a society, personal autonomy and individual decision-making are severely restricted, and citizens lack the freedom to make independent choices.
Popper's enthusiastic Hungarian-American-Ashkenazi student, George Soros, drew inspiration from Popper's concept of the "Open Society" to establish his own socio-Marxist organization (whose name we intentionally omit). Building on Popper's foundation, Soros cherished the valuable lesson of questioning and scrutinizing everything.
Popper, a proponent of focusing on pain over happiness, advocated for the prioritization of pain reduction rather than the pursuit of happiness. Consciously or unconsciously he suggested, that our brains should continually engage with and fortify the neural pathways associated with suffering. Yet, we must be cautious of the detrimental effects of fixating on painful experiences, as exemplified by studies demonstrating the healing potential of selecting smiling faces from a matrix of photos in alleviating social anxiety disorder. Our attention shapes our reality.
Additionally, Popper critiqued the Copenhagen interpretation of quantum physics for its perceived lack of rationality. However, the nature of reality transcends everyday logic, and on the absolute level, logic becomes ineffectual, requiring only intuition for spontaneous comprehension. Intentional thoughts, like clouds obscuring the sun, fade in significance.
In adopting Popper's philosophy of critical examination and directing attention towards the negative, it is unnecessary to further elaborate on this controversial Marxist figure who may be viewed as unwell or harboring questionable intentions.
Behavioral Feedback: Another Shallow Hope For Discovering The ”Meaning”
May we hold the aspiration that Popper, in his future existence, avoids repeating past errors, echoing the sentiments of BF Skinner (-1990). Skinner, an American behaviorist and psychologist, introduced the "principle of reinforcement." This principle posits that as human actions stem from reactions to and experiences of past actions. As such, the likelihood of refraining from harmful behaviors and instead engaging in more constructive actions increases with the arrival of feedback from others.
In contrast, G. Ryle (-1976), another behaviorist, dismissed the interconnection between behavior and the mind (soul or attitude). Unable to explain this relationship, he proposed abstaining from its discussion. Ryle's functionalist approach contended that Descartes' notion of the "ghost in the machine," which suggests the presence of a soul within a physical body, should be discarded as a categorical mistake akin to comparing "Thursdays" to "tables."
Ryle's error becomes apparent when likening his idea to suggesting that seeds and apples are distinct entities, rendering discussions on how seeds come to be within apples meaningless. Ryle's preoccupation with terminologies and words led him astray, blinding him to the interconnectedness between behavior and the mind. Therefore, further contemplation of his perspectives seems unnecessary.
P. Singer (1946-), on the other hand, observes that while individuals aspire to avoid pain and pursue happiness, only few actively strive to cultivate their own virtues. Moral behavior, an endeavor of self-improvement, fails to captivate everyone's interest. Regrettably, the Western society often fails to grasp or give due regard to the knowledge of causality.
The Brave Revealers: Unmasking Hidden Manipulations
Behavior, however, is not regarded as the ultimate meaning by numerous philosophers. They argue that actions are contingent upon motivation, which, in turn, relies on patterns of thinking. Moreover, a deeper truth exists beyond and within thoughts, surpassing what thoughts alone offer.
German philosopher T.W. Adorno (-1969) possessed the remarkable ability not only to engage in profound thinking but also to recognize the meta aspect of thought. Adorno understood that the purpose of thinking is not to establish a singular "universal truth" or a rigid "pure thought," as truth varies for each individual. Instead, he emphasized the significance of thinking as a continuous flow, a natural process that operates within the world of appearances and concepts. Adorno considered the fluidity of this process to be more crucial than the specific content it generates. We may liken it to the importance of a well-functioning television over the programs it broadcasts.
Moreover, Adorno introduced the notion of "identity thinking," which signifies a mode of cognition that goes beyond mere comprehension of phenomena. According to Adorno, this form of thinking not only seeks to understand reality but also actively molds our experiences based on our will and interpretation. While Ryle was running away from understanding reality, Adorno highlighted our capacity to confront and exert control over our understanding of the world.
Furthermore, Adorno went on to argue that the formation and interpretation of thoughts are not only within the individual's domain but can also be wielded by a central authority to control the masses. Adorno coined the term "culture industry" to describe an industry that manipulates and exercises control over society. This implies that politicians have the ability to shape culture by manipulating thoughts. If we are unaware of how our brains absorb and internalize the messages presented to us through advertising, gradually identifying with them even on a subconscious level, we may relinquish conscious control and fall under the sway of subliminal or subconscious patterns implanted by external forces.
It all begins with repeated messages and advertisements that, according to experiential rules, need to be encountered at least seven times for them to become ingrained in our habitual thought patterns. This means that anything can be sold to us if we are exposed to it frequently enough. And this doesn't necessarily pertain only to products; it can also apply to behavioral patterns or specific mindsets regarding certain topics. Repetition is the key, and the media is well aware of this fact.
Repetitive messages can lead to the phenomenon of large masses of people rushing to take a vaccine, even if it has severe side effects such as blood clotting and premature death.
Another method utilized is the incorporation of subliminal messages. These messages involve hidden signs or words embedded within videos or music, with the repetitive exposure to these stimuli having the potential to influence and guide our subconscious minds toward desired effects. Subliminal messages can manifest as whispered words of influence during a song or a TV advertisement, imperceptible frames flashed for a fraction of a second in a video, or signs that appear multiple times in different contexts.
Additionally, there is another method worth mentioning, which was brought to light by whistleblower John Todd. This method involves the alleged practice of writing song lyrics in a language associated with witchcraft or magic. When these songs are played backwards, they are said to carry special messages akin to spells. Intriguingly, our subconscious mind is purported to recognize and be influenced by these reversed messages. Examples of this phenomenon include claims that popular songs, when played in reverse, contain hidden messages or backmasked messages. Often, these hidden messages are attributed to satanic themes.
One noteworthy example frequently cited is the supposed reverse interpretation of Barack Obama's campaign slogan, "Yes, we can," which, when played backwards, sounds like "Thank you Satan."
Subliminal messages can indeed adopt various forms, including whispered, speeded up, or slowed down phrases subtly interwoven into popular songs. These messages are designed to operate below the threshold of conscious perception, yet they have the potential to leave a lasting imprint on the subconscious mind. Adorno, by elucidating this process, serves as a warning, urging us to remain vigilant, to identify these influences, and to take measures to protect ourselves and others.
When addressing the topics of global control or a totalitarian police state, it is crucial to recognize the profound insights provided by George Orwell (-1950). His contributions in this regard are highly significant and relevant.
Many of us are familiar with Orwell's concepts, such as the pervasive presence of "Big Brother" watching over us, the ideological struggle known as the "cold war" between socialist and capitalist regimes, and the notion of the "thought police."
Interestingly, not widely known is the fact that Orwell was born in Bihar, India. In relation to his novel Nineteen Eighty-Four (1949), Orwell expressed, "Every line of serious work that I've written since 1936 has been written directly or indirectly against Totalitarianism." We owe Orwell a debt of gratitude for his insightful and thought-provoking contributions that shed light on the dangers of oppressive regimes.
George Orwell's contemporary, T.A. Huxley, also made a significant contribution to the exploration of similar themes. His book Brave New World (1932) precedes Orwell's masterpiece and presents a dystopian vision of a New World Order, similar to the one aimed to be created by the deep state with the help of high-ranked freemasons. Huxley's work portrays the potential miseries and challenges associated with this envisioned society.
By merging the totalitarian state depicted by Huxley and the sadistic and fear-driven control portrayed by Orwell, we can obtain a more complete image of the motivational factors behind the deep state.
Interestingly, not widely known is the friendship between Huxley and J Krishnamurti, who introduced Huxley to Vedanta, an ancient Indian philosophy. Huxley learnt meditation and adopted an ahimsa-style diet, embracing non-violence. He even wrote the introduction to a California-published edition of the Bhagavad Gita and delivered Vedic lectures at the Santa Barbara and Hollywood societies.
Huxley's interest extended to the mystical and unseen world, a subject often associated with the East. In his book The Perennial Philosophy, he espoused a viewpoint that resonated deeply with Hinduism, proposing that reality encompasses more than our limited relative perception and that a universal force permeates and influences us.
However, Huxley made a mistake in his quest for transcendent states of consciousness. He experimented with psychedelics to facilitate these experiences, which led his works to be embraced by the hippie movement. Today, we understand that consciousness-altering substances are not wise choices, akin to throwing banknotes onto a campfire. They can deplete the reservoir of positive impressions, often referred to as good karma, that bring happiness and a fulfilling life. By exchanging future happiness for an immediate altered state of mind, those who followed Huxley on this path risked destroying their lives and succumbing to overdoses.
Huxley's example serves as a reminder that being spiritually open and vocal against tyranny is not enough. It is crucial to maintain a sober sense of everyday reality, understanding what is healthy and what is not, to navigate life wisely.
Huston C. Smith (-2016) was indeed deeply influenced by Huxley's perennial philosophy and writings. Despite being born and raised in China within a Methodist family, Smith eventually departed from his Methodist beliefs and embarked on a spiritual journey that led him to explore Vedanta and Zen Buddhism. He also delved into the study of Sufism and became a prominent scholar in the field of religious studies.
Navigating the Value Memes: Unveiling an Escape Route to Liberation
Darwin's survival-based approach to evolution received a notable update through the work of British evolutionary biologist Richard Dawkins (1941-). Dawkins advanced the gene-centered perspective on evolution, introducing an additional concept. He argued that behavioral tendencies exert influences on our genes, highlighting the significance of examining and evaluating our cultural habits, as they impact the genetic makeup of society as a whole. Dawkins introduced the term "meme," which can be seen as the cultural (behavioral) genome, analogous to a gene. He formulated a comprehensive framework to explain cultural evolution based on these memes.
Had Dawkins and biologist Dr. Bruce Lipton (1944-) been acquainted, their collaboration could have been fruitful. Lipton explores how the mental states prevalent in a cultural environment can epigenetically modify genes through the field of epigenetics. Through his experiential scientific work, Dr. Bruce Lipton has demonstrated that happiness and positive emotions like generosity activate specific gene expressions that enable us to flourish and utilize additional capabilities and skills. Conversely, anger or sadness have the opposite effect, as they suppress or close off access to these gene expressions and the associated capabilities. Therefore, from a biological standpoint, happiness is beneficial for us, while anger is detrimental.
Dawkins is widely regarded as a pioneer in our era for illuminating the link between diverse cultural impulses or habits and their biological connection to genes. He sought to establish a clear connection between the replicative properties of genes and the cultural hereditary qualities they carry. However, it was through the work of the philosophers Susan Blackmore (1951-) and Daniel C. Dennett III (-1942) that the concept and scientific field of "memetics" gained solid footing and became established.
Susan Blackmore, a British philosopher and Zen practitioner, challenges the notion of conceptual or appearance-based consciousness, considering it to be illusory. She asserts that the consciousness-pictures reflected in the mirror of mind are deceptive, and only the radiant nature of the mirror of mind remains unchanged. Like her compatriot Dawkins, she aligns herself with the Atheist movement.
Meanwhile, Daniel Dennett, an American philosopher, emphasizes that the idea of a solid, distinct "I" is merely a thought within the brain and not a concrete entity. He posits that thoughts within the brain compete, and the consciousness that emerges functions as a narrative representing the victorious ideas, serving the purpose of communication. Memes, in this context, are akin to branches of cultural impression packages, encapsulating thoughts. Consequently, we can conclude that the founders of memetics, contrary to the materialistic standpoint of Darwin, are scientists of mind and reality.
D.R. Hofstadter (1945-) shares a similar perspective to Sue Blackmore regarding the concept of the "I." He acknowledges the illusory nature of the "I" and also recognizes its utility as a highly effective illusion that contributes to the survival of the individual. According to Hofstadter, the "I" is nothing more than a looping, illusory program within the brain. He aptly describes it as each person having mirrors, represented by the multitude of "I"s present in others' brains. In this sense, our consciousness not only resides within our own brain but also partially exists in the minds of others, much like the way we reflect and are reflected by others.
Professor of psychology Clair W. Graves (-1986) made a significant contribution to the concept of memes. Through his research, he highlighted that individuals, as well as groups and societies, undergo different stages of development throughout their lifetimes. Graves referred to these stages as "cyclical levels of existence." He shared his findings with Don E. Beck (-2020), who succeeded him in the field. Beck, in collaboration with Chris Cowan, integrated Richard Dawkins' memetics concept with Graves' stages, forming a cohesive system known as Spiral Dynamics. This system encompasses the notion of value memes or vMemes, which represent categories of value-packages that individuals and societies carry within their distinct and consequential stages of development.
Ken Wilber (1949-) later introduced his own version called Spiral Dynamics Integral, drawing inspiration from the teachings of Aurobindo, specifically the concept of the Hindu Brahmanist Supermind (SuperAtman or SuperEgo). Wilber aimed to create a developmental system that encompassed all levels of spiritual growth, allowing individuals to progress gradually. However, a potential limitation of his approach is the emphasis on ascending to higher stages of complexity, akin to the Hindu pursuit of reaching a "higher development stage" for attaining realization of the mind. Despite his intellectual prowess, Wilber encountered challenges when attempting to incorporate Buddhism into his system, as the true understanding of the mind and absolute reality extends beyond the confines of worldly relative consciousness.
Intellectually improving oneself and comprehending the nature of the mind represent divergent paths, as the very thoughts that arise must be dodged or abandoned to look between them and realize, that they all appear in mind’s space-like nature. Consequently, fixating on the pursuit of complexity, universality, or any other attribute attributed to thoughts becomes a trap. Instead, it is in recognizing the transient nature of thoughts and their limitations that one can transcend their hold and bask in the clarity of the mind's inherent brilliance.
The works of Graves and Beck served as profound inspiration for this sincere author. Building upon their ideas about the development of human values, this author expanded upon them in two significant ways. Firstly, additional developmental steps were incorporated into Grave's original system. Secondly, a right-angle concept was introduced, redirecting the focus of development away from the notion of ascending a hierarchical staircase. Instead, it emphasized that understanding the nature of the mind, which leads to liberation, is possible at each and every level of the Spiral. This is because the development steps primarily represent cultural and thought complexities that are not essential for attaining liberation.
Thus, the sincere author proposed and established the theory of Spiral Dynamics Extended (SDx). Drawing inspiration from the non-self teachings of the East and incorporating insights from Western philosophers' traditions, SDx offers a comprehensive framework. Readers can explore the detailed exposition of SDx in the socio-cultural chapter of this book.
The Influence of Modern Morality and Emotions: Shaping Our World and Genetics
Albert Camus (-1960), influenced by Sartre, delved into extreme and nihilistic views, suggesting that the universe (that includes all beings) itself lacks any inherent purpose. From a human perspective, seeking purpose becomes meaningless, as we are mere components or particles within the vastness of the universe. Consequently, power, fame, and fortune hold no intrinsic reason or purpose in the grand scheme of things. It is through the realization of "the absurd" that Camus believed we could rebel against this existential predicament and strive to find enduring meaning in life. This notion of the absurd symbolizes the inherent space-like nature of all reality.
Questions arise: Why do we live? What is our purpose? Is it for ourselves, for others, or a combination of both? How do we define "progress" or a "step forward"? Which holds greater meaning and purpose: anger and hate or loving-kindness and compassion? Camus employed the philosophy of the absurd to encourage individuals to contemplate these questions, urging them to critically assess their values. While some find purpose and meaning in one thing and others in another, the objective is to cultivate a sense of direction within ourselves.
Following Camus, philosophers such as C.L. Stevenson (-1979), J. Mackie (-1981), A.J. Ayer (-1989), P. Foot (-2010), and J.J. Thomson (-2020) turned their attention primarily towards the realm of moral and ethics, focusing on the relative level, trying to fixate some rules we can hold on to.
In contrast to the philosophers who sought to establish rigid ethical rules, P. Hadot (-2010) took a different approach. He delved into the realm of Greco-Roman spiritual exercises, emphasizing practices that could transform perception and liberate individuals from rigid conceptual frameworks.
In a shift from ethics to perception, Edmund Gettier (-2021) made a significant contribution by highlighting the unsettling notion that the legitimacy and justification of certain statements or beliefs can be contingent upon the majority's confirmation. This suggests that the validity of an act is determined not solely by its intrinsic moral quality, but by the collective agreement of the majority. This realization is disconcerting, as it implies that if a sufficient number of confused individuals come together and adopt the same opinion, it can become the prevailing mainstream viewpoint. This phenomenon raises concerns about the potential for mass stupidity to override moral principles and redefine the norms of ethics. It is indeed a distressing prospect to consider.
If a significant number of individuals begin to advocate for the acceptability of women wearing black bedsheets in public places with only eye-holes on them, or wearing clothing altogether as unnatural, or even engaging in self-mutilation of their own ears as a trendy and attractive practice, such notions have the potential to be embraced by society and eventually transformed into laws. Regardless of how unnatural, immoral, indecent, or sick these ideas may appear to those who have not embraced this "progressive change" in thinking, they can shape the trajectory of societal development or even lead to its destruction. These examples, referred to as Gettier-examples, demonstrate the influential power of such tendencies on the cultural and moral landscape of a society.
Simultaneously, these tendencies are not solely organic in nature but can also be intentionally cultivated and perpetuated through mass media channels. We have witnessed numerous instances of such Gettier-examples in relation to the wars initiated by the United States, where the media played a crucial role in garnering public support. Regardless of the veracity of the information disseminated, the repetitive use of expressions such as "weapons of mass destruction in Iraq," "war on terror," or "get a jab to save others" eventually led to their public justification. These examples illustrate the power of media influence in shaping public opinion and solidifying certain narratives and justifying certain actions or beliefs, regardless of their factual accuracy.
Connected to the Gettier-effect, there is a notable technique known as Hashbara, which was developed as an emotion-triggering and emotion-targeting communication strategy to justify the establishment of the State of Israel after World War II. This technique capitalizes on the inherent emotional setup of the human psyche, specifically our inclination to display strength and protect the weak. Due to its targeting/ effect on emotions, Hashbara ensures winning in any situation.
By strategically positioning oneself as the victim and appealing to emotions, Hashbara aims to evoke a protective response in the masses, regardless of the topic's validity or moral standing. Once triggered by playing out the emotional ”victim-card”, this protective instinct overrides rational thought and intellect, as survival instincts take precedence no matter the topic or if it is right or wrong. The masses tend to rally in support of those who shout the loudest, claiming to be victims of harm.
There is no protective method against this setup, except to stay away from a debate in which one may expect that. In immediacy and the speed of the triggered action, the emotions or, we may say, the limbic system ("the mammal brain") win over the intellect or the neocortex ("human brain"), and consequently, survival or the brain stem ("reptilian brain") wins over emotions. Therefore, the survival-related emotional complains, such as ”you endanger my life/ existence”, provoke the fastest and strongest protective effect.
Like Gettier, T. Nagel (1937-) was also interested in the topic of perceptions, particularly how the perception of a certain object can elicit different subjective impulses and associations in different individuals. This diversity arises from our inherent differences—some of us rely more on our neocortex, while others prefer to trust their limbic system and the intuitions of their hearts. Despite sharing a universal mind at the absolute level, our relative existence is shaped by distinct genes, body forms, emotions, ideas, and circumstances, resulting in a subjective experience of life. Nagel's groundbreaking book, "What Is It Like to Be a Bat?" (1974), explored the subjective experience and challenged the neo-Darwinian view that consciousness is solely a mechanical function of the brain. It emphasized the highly personal and subjective nature of conscious experience. While subjective feelings can still be logical, the existence of multiple truths becomes apparent when considering the perspectives of different stakeholders in a situation. Logic alone cannot provide answers as all subjective opinions can be logical; we must always ask, "According to whom?" Each individual's subjective experience influences their understanding of truth, and objective statements may not fully capture the subjective dimension of consciousness.
At this juncture, it is important to highlight the contributions of J.R. Searle (1932-), who, like Dr. Bruce Lipton, emphasizes the biological nature of mental states or emotions, and how they can bring about changes in the human body. Searle further elaborates on the interplay between consciousness and the external world, stating that consciousness has the capacity to influence its beliefs and perceptions in the world (mind-to-world), while the world, in turn, can impact the brain and give rise to different desires (world-to-mind). This dynamic interaction between consciousness and the surrounding circumstances can affect our biology, and in turn, our bodies can exert an influence on our environment.
Sam Harris (1967-), an American supporter of the atheist movement, shares common ground with Susan Blackmore in their advocacy for atheism. Harris arrived at his atheistic perspective through a critical examination of moral aspects related to belief in a God, particularly within Islam and Christianity, as well as through his exploration of mind-training practices. One of his compelling arguments critiques the notion of Christian morality, questioning how an all-knowing and all-powerful God could allow widespread suffering in the world. Harris's book, "The Moral Landscape: How Science Can Determine Human Values," offers a thought-provoking exploration of moral issues pertaining to religion and is widely regarded as a masterpiece.
There is an intriguing anecdote involving Sam Harris that sheds light on an important lesson. During a show hosted by Bill Maher, where Islam was being critically discussed, Harris encountered a vehement pushback from Ben Affleck, demonstrating a prime example of emotional manipulation we already know, Hashbara. Affleck sought to provoke an emotional response from Harris and the audience, questioning his motives rather than engaging with the factual research on Islam. Instead of addressing the pertinent facts, Affleck asked provocative questions like, "Why do you raise such topics?" and "Why do you profit from criticizing people?"
The skilled actor adeptly used emotional tactics to his advantage, ultimately prevailing in the verbal debate against the fact-oriented scientist. While the scientist anticipated a rational and scientific discussion, he would have felt uncomfortable engaging in a loud and emotionally charged debate similar to Affleck's style. The audience, influenced by the emotional appeal, rallied behind Affleck's position.
How could this happen? Why did Sam lose the debate battle? It was because he maintained his composure and scientific approach. Meanwhile, as we know, according to the fundamental principles of Hashbara, emotions tend to triumph over facts.
How could Affleck have won? If he had adopted the same debate style, he would have had a theoretical chance. However, Affleck prepared well with his emotion-triggering questions, giving him an advantage in the realm of emotionally charged debates. Harris's best chance would have been to mirror Affleck's arguments and questions, turning them back against him. Yet, in doing so, Harris would have deviated from his usual stance as a serious scientist. As mentioned earlier, engaging in Hashbara is ultimately a failure, as it is inherently designed to favor emotional manipulation. The best course of action is to take a stand, clearly state one's awareness of the emotional blackmailing debate style, and refuse to participate.
"You are employing an emotionally manipulative debate style known as Hashbara. I choose not to engage in such tactics, as I am a scientist who values the intellectual capacity of the human brain, particularly the neocortex, over emotional responses or the mammalian brain, known as the lymbic system. Good-bye."
Simultaneously, individuals should appreciate the opportunity and freedom to engage in debates. It is far preferable to be able to express one's opinions and engage in intellectual discourse, rather than finding oneself in situations where personal safety and physical security are compromised.
Numerous insiders and whistleblowers, including Fritz A. Springmeier (1955-) and former FBI Director Ted Gunderson (-2011), have revealed disturbing accounts of Satanic Ritual Abuse (SRA) inflicted upon both children and adults. This form of abuse, has gained attention and can be found documented in various sources, including video-sharing platforms. Psychologist Colin Ross has explored the subject in his book "Satanic Ritual Abuse – Principles of Treatment," shedding light on the prevalence of this issue. Shockingly, he estimated that nearly one in ten American citizens has been exposed to or victimized by SRA in some form. However, the increasing awareness surrounding this issue has led to the emergence of therapy handbooks and resources aimed at addressing and providing support for survivors.
Additionally, individuals who have experienced such traumas may find it helpful to explore resources such as Lisa Wimberger's book on the method of "Neurosculpting" and Dr. Les Fehmi's book "Open Focus Brain." These books offer valuable insights and techniques that, when applied together, can assist in the healing process and support individuals in overcoming their traumas.
Returning to the topic of religious beliefs and morality, it is worth noting that some individuals claim that Satanists or Sabbateans disguise themselves as devout followers of mainstream religions. They may find it convenient to assume roles such as Christian priests or Muslim Mullahs as a means of concealing their true intentions. It is worth noting that there are circulating videos on the internet that allegedly show priests on stage making hand signs associated with Satanism, while the audience, including members of the elite, also display similar gestures as they sing together.
So, what shall we believe from what? Ultimately, it is important to rely on our own reasoning and critical thinking skills to form conclusions and make informed judgments. By cultivating inner freedom and approaching complex issues with care and love, we can navigate difficult topics such as emotional manipulation or claims of satanism with a discerning mindset. This allows us to view them as aspects of the ever-changing nature of the mind, ultimately empowering us to find a secure ground in our understanding.
Unveiling the Interplay of Mind and Reality: A Modern Exploration
In the realm of contemporary philosophers of mind, one name stands out prominently: D.J. Chalmers (1966-), a brilliant Australian philosopher and student of Hoftsadter. Renowned for asking the most compelling questions in modern philosophy, he undoubtedly holds the mantle of intellectual excellence. With his distinctive style, sporting a leather jacket and long hair, he even shares a musical passion, being a singer in a rock band, much like the sincere author of this book. Yet, beyond his polychromatic persona, it is his profound intellect that truly sets him apart.
Chalmers' philosophical stance revolves around panpsychism, positing that reality's foundation encompasses both the mental and the physical. However, it does not go so far as to claim that everything merely exists within the space-nature of our mind. Instead, it highlights the interconnectedness between the mind and physical reality. According to his system, the mind permeates physical reality, such as the brain, while also extending beyond the physical realm. It implies a profound relationship between the mind and the physical world.
He refers to his unique variation of panpsychism as panprotopsychism, a naturalistically dualist perspective. According to this view, mental events, particularly the way they appear or are experienced by us (qualia), are pivotal in shaping our lives: ”the mind or a mindlike aspect is a fundamental and ubiquitous feature of reality”. (DJCCCR) Perceptions and our responses to them play a crucial role in determining our reality and our relative consciousness.
In line with his mentor Hofstadter, Chalmers employs the terms ”soft” and ”hard” to describe consciousness. According to Chalmers, cognitive functions like perception, attention, and memory are considered ”soft” problems of consciousness, meaning they can be explained relatively easily. At the same time, Chalmers is widely recognized for formulating the "hard problem of consciousness." Chalmers' primary concern revolves around the coexistence of matter (the brain) and consciousness in an intertwined manner. He seeks to understand the intricate relationship between physical processes and subjective experiences of consciousness.
In his book he asks: „One of the central problems in the metaphysics of mind is the problem of mental causation: How can the mind affect the physical world?” (DJCCCR). In a Kantian perspective, the question arises: ”How is it possible that mental states should be physical states of the brain?". (DJCCCR)
Chalmers observes the current state of Western philosophy by highlighting three main perspectives: Cartesian dualism, Physicalism (or materialism), and Idealism. Cartesian dualism suggests that the mind and body are separate entities that interact with each other. Physicalism, also called the realist approach on the other hand, posits that our mental experiences arise from the chemical states of the brain. In contrast, Idealism argues that everything is perceived within the mind, making the physical world an impression within consciousness.
He faces a dilemma as both idealism and physicalism present compelling arguments, seemingly contradicting each other. The challenge lies in reconciling these seemingly conflicting viewpoints and understanding how both perspectives can coexist.
Here we may mention, that in contrast to the scientific pursuit of understanding consciousness and reality, there exists a philosophical theory known as monism, which bears closer resemblance to theology than empirical science. Advocates of monism, often followers of monotheistic belief systems, seek to intertwine their rigid beliefs with a philosophical framework. While attempting to avoid dogmatism, they replace the term "God" with nature or the universe, asserting that this divine-like force creates both the world and human consciousness.
Some monists, known as neutral monists, propose the existence of a neutral element from which both the physical and mental aspects of reality emerge. Interestingly, CERN, the particle collision laboratory in France, famously known for its logo containing three instances of the number 6 (666), has been on the quest to find the so-called "god particle." However, despite their endeavors, they have not yet succeeded in proving the independent existence of such a particle. It is unlikely that they ever will, as everything seems to arise, unfold, and vanish within the vast space of existence. Consequently, CERN's pursuits cannot validate materialism, as the enigmatic nature of reality remains beyond our complete comprehension.
Luckily, Chalmers does not subscribe to monism.
In his quest, to approach a solution, Chalmers seeks to establish a connection between matter and consciousness. He explores three main branches of ideology. The first, micro-idealism, asserts that even microscopic elements like quarks and photons possess mental properties, ultimately leading to panpsychism. The second branch, macro-idealism, delves into the subjective experiences of everyday objects, leading to phenomenalism, which involves the mental analysis of appearances. Lastly, the third branch, cosmic idealism, deals with the cosmos, universal laws, and consciousness, giving rise to cosmopsychism, which suggests that the universe itself possesses conscious properties. These branches offer potential pathways to bridge the gap between matter and consciousness.
Indeed, considering the knowledge gained from this chapter, we can perceive that all three versions of idealism hold truth from distinct perspectives. When we contemplate a 4D reality, encompassing boundless potential and spontaneity, where multiple 3D contexts manifest in it in a playful manner, we can recognize that each direction of idealism captures a unique angle of the totality. Embracing these various viewpoints provides a more comprehensive understanding of the interconnectedness between consciousness and the diverse manifestations of reality.
So why Chalmers and other philosophers cannot find the holy grail solution for the hard problem of consciousness?
The primary reason is that they mix up the space-like absolute Mind with the relative logical and emotional Consciousness, which is connected to the brain.
Secondly, they fail to acknowledge that everything appears in space-awareness; both the physical world and consciousness as well.
Thirdly, they do not consider the quantum-physical explanation (such as the double-slit experiment) that suggests awareness can influence manifestation, which could be the missing link between matter and mind that Chalmers is seeking.
Let's embark on an intellectual adventure to craft our theory, following the eloquent style of Chalmers. The solution could be the following: we talk about three entities - the non-limited mind (M), which possesses a quality of 4D, and the 3D appearances and phenomena that manifest within it. These are consciousness (C), the self-identification of inner awareness, and the physical (P), the illusory hollow dream of outer awareness. Both P and C are contained within the space-nature of M, just as 3D is contained in 4D. From an absolute 4D perspective of M, neither P nor C matters too much, as illusions or dreams do not hold significant importance. Yet, M possesses a space-awareness nature that penetrates both P and C, projecting everything as radiance or light. This is what we refer to as the hollow nature of appearances, where things emerge, play, and dissolve, having no lasting nature. There is more space within an atom than matter itself. Space encompasses not only our bodies but also all things within it, wherever they are in space. It is present where others are and where all things exist around us. This space-nature is our mind, or we may as well say, our mind has space-nature. Thus, mind permeates everything, and as the double-slit experiment shows, it forms and manifests everything. When the attention of space-awareness focuses on one point, wave-like behaving photons transform into particle-like behaving electrons. Mind not only shapes but also manifests reality. In a purely empty vacuum, we cannot escape the continuous appearance and disappearance of light particles (photons). When the focus of space-awareness centers on a particular point, the wave-like behaving photons transform into particle-like behaving electrons. This enchanting interplay between the observer and the observed, like a grand symphony, bestows life to the very fabric of existence.
Chalmers is fully aware of the idea that "consciousness collapses the quantum wave function" (DJCIMBP). Additionally, he raises another significant inquiry related to panpsychism, known as the "combination problem": ”How do the microexperiences of microsubjects collectively constitute the macroexperiences of macrosubjects?” (DJCIMBP). To put it differently, Chalmers questions how the principles that operate on a microscopic scale can seamlessly apply to the macroscopic level. How do the transitions of particles, such as photons becoming electrons, give rise to a cohesive flow that ultimately forms a physical body and its interconnected consciousness?
To address this question, we turn to the concept of "dependent arising" in Eastern philosophy. It suggests that the mind possesses a 4D-like space-nature that is inherently aware and seeks to manifest phenomena. This natural inclination to act prevents the unenlightened mind from resting in boundless wisdom and stillness; instead, it generates movement or "wind" we also call the space element. An unenlightened mind tends to be attached to constant activity and is always intrinsically driven to do something. It finds it challenging to rest in a state of pure awareness and stillness. As a result, individual 3D contexts emerge, interconnected with others' subjective experiences.
This interplay of clear light (photons) gives rise to five basic wavelength components that we perceive as colors—red, green, blue, yellow, and clear/white light. It's akin to the enchanting effect of a clear light shining through a prism, revealing a beautiful spectrum of hues. These colors harmoniously combine, giving birth to the vivid lights that shape our 3D reality. This we refer as mind’s clarity or luminous nature.
As awareness becomes conscious of its capacity to transform photons into lower-density vibrations, such as electrons, the mesmerizing dance of visual and magneto-electrically perceivable manifestation unfolds before us.
From the radiant light emerges the vitality of energy—the mesmerizing flow of electrons, creating a captivating magneto-electric field through their graceful rotation. This bubbling flow of energy is often recognized as joy. Meanwhile, electro-magnetism holds within it polarities, vectors that wield influence over the movement and magnetic dance of energies and elemental particles. Consequently, certain elemental particles draw close, forming harmonious alliances, while others repel each other. Those united by attraction mingle, giving birth to more intricate and sophisticated elements. Energies form and vibrate in a certain pattern. This we refer as mind’s joy-nature, its energy aspect or the level of sound and vibrations.
In the next stage, we observe the formation of complex atoms and molecules, which we collectively refer to as matter. This process occurs through the condensation of vibrational or magneto-electric potential from space, as illustrated accurately by the double-slit experiment. Still, we shal remind ourselves that matter emerges from space and eventually dissolves back into it. Atoms and molecules, while constituting matter, are still imbued with the essence of space and resonate with the same magneto-electric nature as the mind that manifested them during their formation or condensation process. This perspective aligns with a materialistic or physicalist viewpoint. This we refer as mind’s manifestation-nature.
We must emphasize that these elements do not inherently become more complex on their own. It is not because some external entity, like a God, commands them to do so. Instead, it is the magneto-electric field of each individual's mind that directs this process. The 4D mind emanates the 3D appearances, making the mind the driving force behind the formation and complexity of everything. It is not merely a passive observer but the initiator and shaper of these manifestations. Everything is a product of the mind's creative power. When consulting a quantum physicist about this process, they do not narrate a historical sequence of events. Instead, they explain that, just like photons can instantaneously transform into electrons, our mind creates the entire reality we experience in an instant.
Whether it's the formation of a material body, the composition of language, or the birth of a thought, the mind has an innate inclination to creatively give rise to forms, much like children playing with plasticine in kindergarten.
To summarize, we have discussed the stages in which the movement begins in space due to ignorance, and we have also explored how the formation of magneto-electric fields eventually leads to the condensation of material forms. Now, let's explore the process of how relative consciousness is shaped.
The first question that arises is: What will be the individual content of this consciousness? What kind of pictures will the movie of our life be made of?
The individual content of our consciousness is derived exclusively from the field of magneto-electric flows, tendencies, and patterns, commonly known as the subconscious seeds. Everything we do generates a magneto-electric impulse, which leaves a distinct imprint in the magneto-electric fields of others as interactions occur, and also in our own fields. The strength of these imprints depends on the electric currents they are imprinted with, which we identify as feelings. Also, the cumulative power of repeated interactions are "wrapped together" and recognized, forming our main habitual subconscious tendencies. when our interactions are infused with joy, goodness, and usefulness, they leave a positive imprint in our magnetoelectric field. These wholesome karmic imprints, when ripened, lead to qualities such as openness, wisdom, and a sense of joy in our consciousness. On the other hand, interactions imprinted with anger or other negative feelings can result in harmful blocks in our magnetoelectric field when they mature. These blocks can manifest in various ways and may hinder our growth and well-being, affecting how we perceive and respond to the world around us. Nevertheless, the subconscious is far from being fix, stable, static or predetermined like the concept of fate. It is a dynamic and ever-changing realm influenced by the continuous circulation of new imprints being formed and old ones ripening. Fortunately, there are various methods available to address the contents of the subconscious. These methods allow us to remove harmful or negative seeds before they fully mature and create undesired outcomes. Additionally, we can intentionally plant positive seeds. An apt analogy would be replacing a corrupt memory card in a laptop.
Imprints, in general, form magneto-electric process-pathways that shape our responses to both internal and external impulses. As a consequence, a very basic, rudimentary and instinctual-like form of relative consciousness begins to take shape. While not fully conscious in the conventional sense, this stage represents the realm of the subconscious, the deep habitual storehouse of consciousness. Nonetheless, it serves as the bedrock for our everyday experience of relative consciousness, influencing and framing our perceptions and behaviors in subtle yet powerful ways.
Habitual consciousness seeks simplicity by categorizing and naming similar objects or experiences. Instead of assigning a new name to every flat surface with four wooden pillars at the bottom, it recalls past encounters and associates them, eventually giving them a common label, such as "chair." This simplification extends to various items, like a "sofa" for something more substantial. The process of labeling becomes a tool for effective communication and mutual understanding, particularly when shared within a family, group, or society. This habit of stamping, naming, and labeling emerges from the joy of engaging in conversations.
The term "joy" carries a deeper meaning here, referring to the positive and hindrance-less flow of energies experienced as delight. Therefore, the act of easily and creatively forming mental patterns based on perceptions is enjoyable, because the movement of doing something stirs up the energy flow. This is why people are constantly drawn to engaging in activities, addicted to the movement.
At this stage, due to focused attention what we call ”reality” takes shape, and the vibration of energy or speech solidifies magneto-electronic constellations into matter. Here we can explore the concept of the four elements that constitute the relative world: wind, representing movement; heat, symbolizing fire; the threee states of water, and solid things we call earth, because earth contains the metals.
Additionally, our sense organs form a vital part of this process - the eyes, nose, touch, tongue, ears, and the intellect continuously receive inputs from the external world. As a result, we not only perceive things but also actively engage with them, leading to interactions between our internal and external worlds. This interaction can elicit various feelings - sometimes pleasurable, sometimes not. We tend to cling to comfortable experiences and avoid unpleasant ones.
Moreover, there are instances when we can intuitively ”feel” the nature of the people around us.
In our pursuit of these pleasurable experiences, we become tightly attached to our views, opinions, and beliefs. We adhere to moral and ethical principles, seeking comfort and addiction to the presence of our loved ones, particularly cherishing the moments with our spouse in the evenings. As we progress through life, we begin to take ourselves seriously, defining our identity through our experiences and actions. Such is the essence of existence, as we navigate the theater of life.
However, this cycle of existence is not indefinite. As time passes, we inevitably experience the effects of aging, illness, and the ultimate certainty of mortality, which eventually leads us to depart from this world. Despite this physical dissolution, the magneto-electric energy-level that encapsulates the imprints of our thoughts and experiences continues to exist beyond the confines of our physical form.
During our time of being alive, we possess both a subconscious energy level and a brain-directed body and relative intellect. However, when we pass away, in the space-nature of mind only the subconscious persists, carrying the imprints of our experiences and shaping our journey beyond physical existence.
In simple terms, the absolute mind doesn't just influence the physical world; it actively creates it. The physical world emerges within the vast expanse of the mind through the process of dependent arising, as explained earlier.
Hence, attempting to find the solution by scrutinizing relative consciousness with itself leads to a dead end. Only through understanding the absolute mind can we gain a proper answer to the enigmas of meta-consciousness.
Consequently, there is a strong possibility that we have successfully addressed Chalmers' hard problem of consciousness, or at the very least, made our best attempt at doing so.
Our discoveries reveal that the ultimate director of our relative consciousness is not the brain itself, but rather a manifestation of the subconscious field, while the brain functions merely as an obedient instrument, following the cues and magneto-electric impulses of our subconscious field. The wave-like patterns of these magneto-electric fields exert an influence, prompting the glial cells to take action. When these glial cells are frequently and sufficiently electrified, it is indeed reasonable to assume that they play a significant role in shaping the development of neuronal pathways, thereby simplifying the flow of habitual information. This process can be likened to builders surveying the natural pathways people naturally take through residential areas before laying the pavement.
The research conducted by British neuroscientist J. Lober (-1996) revealed that the brain tissue primarily serves as a tool for relative consciousness and is not entirely essential. Lober's findings showed that many individuals with higher IQs than the average (above 100) can function normally, despite a significant portion of their brain tissue being absent. In some cases, they even have cerebrospinal fluid in their skull instead of brain tissue. Their brains weigh only between 50-150 grams, as opposed to the typical 1.5 kilograms. This phenomenon is commonly referred to as "water on the brain" or hydrocephalus.
”The brain’s primary function is not productive; it does not produce states of consciousness from the interactions of supposedly inert brain matter. Instead, it is adaptive; it is what allows us to keep our attention on the world around us; it is what “keeps us in touch with realities”; it is what keeps our awareness “tensely strained on life”” (GWBLC, 141)
From this, we gain the understanding that our mind acts as the TV transmitter, while the terrestrial or satellite TV signal represents our magneto-electric energy field. On the other hand, the brain simply functions as the TV set or receiver. The brain tends to captivate us with the moving pictures it presents, which we often mistake for the true reality of life.
As a side note, it's worth mentioning that the sincere author of this text has chosen not to have a TV subscription for many years. Despite holding significant positions in the TV & Media industry, such as being a TV department leader at Samsung and a country manager of Universal Networks, he has opted not to have a TV subscription at home.
Moreover, our gradually shifting subconscious electromagnetic field, which can be likened to mental imprints or karmic tendencies, combines with our immediate mental states, giving rise to a vector of the most recurrent inclinations, directions, and intentions that define our life choices. It becomes the focal point that shapes our actions, and we either strive to maximize personal gains or wisely seek the benefit of all, recognizing our interconnectedness with the wider world.
Notably, this magneto-electric field does not solely influence or regulate our brain; it also plays a role in opening or closing specific sections of our genome through the epigenome, as highlighted by Dr. B. Lipton.
Consequently, both our physical body and our life's trajectory are influenced, or rather formed, by the dynamic interplay of our subconscious magneto-electric field.
The Holistic/Integrative Intellect: A Tool on the Path to Wisdom
Why do many philosophers resist the idea of accepting that relative consciousness is transient while the mind endures? Perhaps because they hold their high intelligence in such high regard, viewing it as a unique and paramount attribute. When one is more intelligent than others, it can be tempting to take pride in it. However, acknowledging that a well-functioning brain can be cultivated by anyone through training might prove difficult for even the brightest minds. Just like a muscle can be trained in the gym, repetitive thinking and learning can exercise the brain.
In this regard, let's consider the author as a shining example. Just five years ago, basic arithmetic like 2+2 posed a challenge, but through diligent practice and learning, the author can now effortlessly arrive at the correct answer (5). This proves that with dedication, anyone can perfect intellect, much like becoming a champion in bodybuilding through persistent training.
Improving brain functioning can be achieved through simple yet effective means that enhance supportive physical conditions. While engaging in rigorous mental exercises can undoubtedly boost cognitive abilities, many health-conscious people choose to complement their efforts with supplemental aids such as the 5% Lugol iodine solution, which enhances attention, and omega-3 fish oil, known to improve thinking capacity. The unique properties of Lugol solution extend beyond its cognitive benefits, as it also serves as an antidote for radioactive contamination. Consequently, daily consumption of at least two drops in a gelatine capsule, accompanied by a glass of comfortably warm water, is highly recommended. The best part is, there is no established upper limit for iodine consumption, as any excess can be naturally eliminated through urine, similar to excess vitamin C. The sincere author, supplements with 10-15 or more droplets of Lugol solution daily, recognizing the value of iodine supplementation, particularly in the current era of potential nuclear threats. By fortifying the body with Lugol iodine solution, one may increase their chances of survival in the face of radioactive exposure. The author shares an anecdote about a friend who participated in the Chernobyl decontamination process, surviving the ordeal due to iodine supplementation, while their fellows who did not supplement iodine tragically did not survive. Expert Dr. David Brownstein emphasizes that supporting thyroid functions necessitates essential supplements like Zinc (min. 60-65mg) and Selenium (min. 200-250mcg), along with recommended doses of Magnesium (min. 4-600mg) and Vitamin C (1-3000mg). Though specific dosages are not explored here, these supplements play a crucial role in maintaining overall health and well-being.
For individuals with cardiovascular issues, it is essential to note that cholesterol-reducing pills do not benefit brain health, considering that the brain itself comprises at least seventy percent cholesterol. Instead, opting for good animal fats over wheat flour-based products is the preferred solution. This choice stems from the detrimental impact of gluten present in wheat products, leading to imbalanced cholesterol levels, leaky gut syndrome, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and even a decline in cognitive function.Gluten, a protein commonly found in wheat products, has been linked to the accumulation of stubborn white fat in our bodies, often referred to as "adipose tissue" or inner fat. This form of fat is notoriously difficult to reduce. Notably, gluten consumption disrupts the delicate 1/3 ratio between "good" and "bad" cholesterol, leading to imbalances in our cholesterol levels. In contrast, animal fat, also known as digestible brown fat, serves as a valuable energy source for our bodies. Embracing animal fat in our diet helps restore the proper balance of "good" and "bad" cholesterol. As a result, it contributes to a healthier and more favorable cholesterol profile, promoting overall well-being.
Furthermore, a thorough and robust parasite cleanse can significantly refresh the body's vitality, as parasites tend to consume a substantial amount of energy. Options like the capsule version of Dr. Lodi's (drlodi.com) regimen or the herbal approach advocated by Dr. Hulda Clark (drhuldaclark.org) are among the best.
In conclusion, embracing these physical actions contributes to the recovery of intellectual freshness by fostering optimal brain health and overall well-being. The integrative intellect flourishes when nurtured through a holistic approach that encompasses both mental and physical aspects of self-improvement.
Throughout history, the world has witnessed the rise and fall of Human Gods, Heroes, and Champions, demonstrating the impermanence of greatness. Intelligence, a remarkable tool, can be a force for good when wielded without the veil of proud egotism, becoming a quality that benefits not just the individual but many.
In ancient Greece, the term "Philo-sophia" embodied the love of wisdom, encompassing all knowledge available at that time. A true philosopher cherished wisdom in all its forms and integrated diverse sciences into their understanding. Today's philosopher must follow a similar path, not only delving into the annals of history but also embracing the knowledge that has emerged and separated from philosophy over millennia. Fields such as biology, neuroscience, quantum physics, sociology, and psychology fall under the same umbrella, inviting the modern philosopher to master and integrate intellectual wisdom across various domains.
Imagine ourselves akin to characters in sci-fi movies like Mr. Spock or the tall whites from the Pleiades, where upon completing our learning journey, we become masters of multiple knowledgeable areas. Our intention is noble – to benefit every being in the universe. In doing so, we transcend the traditional confines of intellect, venturing into a boundless realm of possibilities. ”This is the way.”
In this article series, we immerse ourselves in various branches of science, aiming to emerge as intellectually unshakeable ambassadors of the profound art of professional intuition.
Taking inspiration from the great philosopher Bertrand Russell, A.C. Grayling (1949-) echoes a similar sentiment. He emphasizes that philosophy, as a method of inquiry, should embrace not only natural and social sciences but also encompass the realms of humanities and arts. According to Grayling, the art of philosophy lies in formulating the right questions and seeking answers, a process that transcends disciplinary boundaries. As we refine and perfect this approach, we unlock the potential for each scientific field to flourish even further.
Intellectual knowledge, while a crucial starting point, cannot be the ultimate solution for all life's challenges. The key lies in transcending from the mind to the heart through mental practice and meditation. This is the path that nurtures relative intellectual knowledge into profound wisdom.
Once, the wise Indian yogi Tilopa sent his learned student, Professor Naropa, to fetch water. Despite Naropa's brilliance, he struggled to release his thoughts and stifled ideas during meditation, burdened by the weight of his extensive knowledge. It had been twelve years of following Tilopa's guidance when this transformative story occurred. Upon Naropa's return with the water, Tilopa unexpectedly struck him on the head with wooden floppers. Surprised, Naropa's habitual concepts shattered, allowing him to glimpse the essence of the mind in the gaps between thoughts. This profound experience led to Naropa's enlightenment, where the boundaries between inner and outer worlds dissolved, and he comprehended the absolute nature of the mind. From that moment on, intuitive knowledge flowed effortlessly, transcending the limitations of space and time.
The story's wisdom does not lie in attributing magical qualities to the wooden floppers. Instead, it underscores the importance of not becoming overly attached to our thoughts and knowledge. While thoughts and intellectual capabilities are valuable tools, clinging too tightly to them can impede our journey towards intuitive wisdom. Therefore, a prudent approach involves harmonizing meaningful learning with meditation, embracing an alternating practice to cultivate a profound understanding of the mind's nature.
Exploring Behaviors: Conscious Realism and Active Externalism
Some philosophers are more at ease dealing with concrete aspects of human behavior rather than delving into abstract matters of the mind. Cognitive psychology and cognitive philosophy, which revolve around human behavior, aim to provide valuable insights into this realm. Interestingly, behaviorists eventually find themselves drawn to topics explored by transcendental idealists or phenomenologists.
The Australian philosopher R. Menary views human relations as interconnected and interactive systems. When individuals engage in cognitive exchanges, even through a single sensory organ, there is an ongoing interplay of action and counteraction between them. As both the actions and reactions influence each other's mindset, this reciprocal relationship can be seen as an interactive whole, a self-sustaining system. Consequently, Menary argues that “cognitive processes ain’t (all) in the head” (RMEM, p2) and ”this sort of coupled process counts equally well as a cognitive process, whether or not it is wholly in the head.” (RMEM, p29) thus, he proposes the concept of active externalism. This idea ”challenges individualism directly by implying that an individualistic psychology could only, at best, tell part of the story about cognitive processing: the inside story.” (RMEM, p167) In fact, ”The realm of the mental can spread across the physical, social, and cultural environments as well as bodies and brains.” (RMEM, p189) Thus, we arrived to the transcendental idealist approach.
Meanwhile, the American cognitive psychologist D.D. Hoffman (1955-) proposes an intriguing solution to Chalmers' hard problem of consciousness. He posits that consciousness is the driving force behind the turbulences and energy fluctuations in the brain. In other words, consciousness imagines or dreams up the objects it experiences.
According to Hoffmann, this phenomenon has two facets. On one hand, consciousness creates a "user interface" akin to icons in an operating system, allowing it to handle vast amounts of information without getting bogged down by intricate details. We refer to these as habitual names, labels, or generalized definitions—think "chair." This theory is known as Multimodal Interface Theory.
On the other hand, Hoffmann contends that relative consciousness itself is the source of reality. It is not a physical entity or "something" as monism posits; instead, it is a consciousness void of any physical properties. Hoffmann discusses about a relative consciousness that is void. This perspective is termed conscious realism. This approach is similar to phenomenology.
Together, these two theories propose that the world concept generated by consciousness in our brains serves as a container for all worldly operational phenomena. Hence, the idea or framework we call the world is, in fact, a void epiphenomenon. It is consciousness that leads us to perceive these phenomena as the physical reality we experience.
While Hoffmann does not strictly differentiate between consciousness and mind, his theory offers valuable insights for realists, providing a way to release the tight grip of matter.
Quantum Physics and the Unified Spectrum of Mind and Consciousness: Unraveling the Philosophical Enigma
The philosophical panorama spans a spectrum from materialism to immaterialism, realism to idealism, and thesis to antithesis. Amidst this continuum, two prominent directions stand out usually, with various shades of gray in between.
Similar to the evolution of traditional physics from the "black darkness of ignorance" to the "white light of wisdom," it eventually ventured into the realm of quantum physics. In this domain, a remarkable discovery emerged—the seemingly opposing realms of "black darkness" and "white light" share a common source. Turning to philosophy for further insight, the discipline encountered a collapse of its established dichotomies, such as materialism-immaterialism, realism-idealism, and thesis-antithesis. This collapse arose from the transcendental or meta-recognition that, just like quantum computers have a quantum state of "0" alongside traditional computers' "0" and "1," the world also possesses a state of "0" alongside the previously rigid categories of existence and non-existence, life and death, and so on.
Quantum physics reveals that the indeterminate or undecided state of "0" is the origin of "1" or "0," and every appearance or dissolution arises from the same single source. This source acts as the container in which the wondrous play of space, known as life, unfolds. It is akin to the mirror behind the pictures, the cinema screen behind the movie, the ocean's depth beneath the waves, or the boundless 4D potentiality underlying any 3D phenomenon that takes on various forms in our observable world.
The event of ”collapse” depends solely on the focus of conscious awareness. Thus, regardless of whether one adopts a materialistic perspective or comes from an idealist background, both paths lead to the same conclusion: the same mind is the source of both. The ends of the philosophical rope are intricately bound together, forming an expansive circle of limitless proportions. This vast extension disguises the subtle curvature, and thus, while standing at any point, we may not immediately perceive the circular nature of space until it turns and returns to itself.
As physics continued its relentless progress, physicists embarked on an enlightening journey, posing ever more insightful questions and offering illuminating explanations. Their pursuit took them to the very limits of understanding. In 2011, at a notable conference, the esteemed physicist Steven W. Hawking (-2018) made a bold proclamation, declaring that "philosophy is dead," suggesting that philosophers had not kept pace with the modern advancements in science. In a candid interview, he fearlessly expressed his views on God and belief, acknowledging that "Before we comprehended science, it was natural to believe that God created the universe. But now, science presents a more compelling and convincing explanation."
In a parallel to history, our modern quantum physicists find themselves akin to Copernicus, who could describe the motion of the Earth and the sun but struggled to explain why it occurred. Similarly, contemporary physicists face challenges in precisely understanding gravitational fields, even with Newton's concept of gravity. Micio Kaku, a daring scientist, boldly exclaims in a video, "We lied to you about gravity!" Additionally, Rupert Sheldrake, known for his controversial video "The Science Delusion" or "Exposing Scientific Dogmas," fearlessly challenges traditional scientific beliefs using straightforward language.
While the why and how of certain phenomena remain elusive for our present-day physicists, they diligently observe and experience these aspects, providing valuable evidence and proof. The next leap forward will involve the collaboration of innovative thinkers, posing insightful questions to drive further research and exploration in this field. Advancements will emerge from a collective effort to unveil the profound essence of reality.
In line with Hawking's perspective, W. Heisenberg (-1976) conveyed that "Some physicists would prefer to come back to the idea of an objective real world whose smallest parts exist objectively in the same sense as stones or trees exist independently of whether we observe them. This however is impossible." This sentiment echoes the sentiment expressed by Max Planck's (-1947) teacher, who declared, "Physics is finished, young man. It's a dead-end street."
As N. Herbert (1936-) astutely points out, the quantum revolution brought about a fundamental shift in our understanding of reality: "Einstein threw out the classical concept of time; Bohr throws out the classical concept of truth... The next step is to learn to think in the right way, to learn to think quantum-logically." Herbert emphasizes the need to embrace quantum logic, to think in a way that truly aligns with the profound implications of quantum theory.
He continues: "Quantum logicians argue that the quantum revolution goes so deep that replacing new concepts with old will not suffice" (NHQR), but a deeper transformation of our thinking is necessary. He further explains that, "There is no deep reality, Reality is created by observation, Reality is an undivided wholeness" (NHQR), where the boundaries between the observer and the observed blur. Even the very basic experiment of quantum physics—the double-slit experiment—shows that consciousness creates reality.
J. Neumann (-1957), often referred to as the Hungarian father of computers, articulated a profound observation when he said, "Physical objects would have no attributes if a conscious observer were not watching them."
Equally eloquent in his description of the newly discovered quantum theory was W. Wigner (-1995), a Nobel Prize laureate and colleague of Neumann's at Princeton, who, incidentally, also attended the same high school in Budapest. He stated, that: "It is not possible to formulate the laws of quantum mechanics in a fully consistent way without reference to consciousness ... It will remain remarkable, regardless of how our future concepts may develop, that the study of the external world led to the profound realization that the content of consciousness is an ultimate reality."
Wigner's interpretation of quantum mechanics introduces the intriguing concept of "consciousness causes collapse" in the wave function. In essence, this suggests that when our attention is focused on a particular aspect of the quantum world, the probabilistic waves collapse, transforming into observable particles, like electrons, thereby manifesting as physical matter. These waves, often referred to as "empty waves," represent the probability of different outcomes.
Interestingly, the influence of consciousness extends beyond individual awareness. The collective awareness of others also plays a role. In social networks, when our friends share something, the increased probability of us becoming aware of it amplifies the possibility that we eventually experience it. Put simply, the more people think about something, the faster it becomes a part of our conscious reality.
Hence, if we shape people's beliefs and convince them that certain events will occur or that the world is heading in a specific direction, we can influence real-life outcomes. This strategy is being increasingly utilized in government communication, where certain issues are exaggerated, like presenting a virus as extremely dangerous, causing widespread fear and panic. By doing so, those ideas may manifest more quickly or similarly to what was initially planted in people's minds.
F. Capra, the renowned physicist and systems theorist, beautifully elucidates in "Tao of Physics" the profound interconnectedness that characterizes the quantum world. All its components are intricately woven into a cohesive "web," arising from their instantaneous manifestation from the same space. This space, the underlying foundation, unites everything and holds an innate, boundless wisdom we call intuition. It is this space-awareness that facilitates their manifestation, understanding, and interconnection.
Notably, there is no inherent distinction between the observed particles and ourselves. The illusion of individualism or separateness becomes clear as a logical mistake. This perspective unveils a new way of thinking, inviting us to ascend to a higher plateau and choose to remain there. The decision, ultimately, rests in our own hands.
Herbert shares a delightful story: "A visitor to Niels Bohr's country cottage asked about a horseshoe above the front door. 'Do you truly believe it brings good luck, Professor Bohr?' questioned the visitor. 'No,' replied Bohr, 'I don't believe in such superstitions. But you know,' he added with a smile, 'they say it brings luck even if you don't believe in it.'"
"Quantum theory is like Bohr's horseshoe," Herbert adds, "it operates regardless of what one believes."
The beauty of quantum theory lies in its ability to address questions that philosophy ponders, such as the "hard problem" of how consciousness manifests through the brain. It is analogous to understanding how a TV set displays a program transmitted by a station. Quantum physics explores the intricacies of energy, charge (+/-), electron spin, momentum, vectors, impulses, fields, and power potential, shedding light on the functioning of transistors, resistors, capacitors, coils, and more within a TV set. While it may not independently construct a new TV set, quantum physics comes remarkably close to unraveling the mystery of TV operation through its observations. To craft an entirely new TV set requires the collaborative synergy of other scientific disciplines, such as philosophy, to bring forth innovation.
Changing philosophical views can indeed be a formidable task. D. Böhm (-1992), the heavyweight champion of quantum-physics and quantum-philosophy, expresses the topic as follows: “What prevents theoretical insights from going beyond existing limitations and changing to meet new facts is just the belief that theories give true knowledge of reality (which implies, of course, that they need never change).” (DBWIO) As philosophers firmly believe in the truth of their theories, it becomes difficult for them to transcend those boundaries and fully assimilate new insights.
He then continues: “Thus, in scientific research, a great deal of our thinking is in terms of theories. The word ‘theory’ derives from the Greek ‘theoria’, which has the same root as ‘theatre’, in a word meaning ‘to view’ or ‘to make a spectacle’. Thus, it might be said that a theory is primarily a form of insight, i.e. a way of looking at the world, and not a form of knowledge of how the world is.” (DBWIO)
Still, in modern science, including philosophy, it is considered polite and respectful to refer to ideas as "theories." It is ”forbidden” to say, that I’m telling you the truth about how things are. This is part of current mainstream culture, in which everyone is allowed to have right, to say anything and believe in anything. There cannot be a single truth that prevails over all other theories. Today, we don't live in a time like ancient India or Greece, where the loser of a philosophical debate had to adopt the beliefs and reasoning of the winning party. Today’s scientific political correctness is the sure way to keep people in confusion. Believing in everything means believing in nothing. Without conviction in a certain theory and engaging in intelligent yet critical debates, there can be no real learning or development. Some professors may cling to their established positions, fearing new revelations in science that challenge their comfort zones, as it may threaten their chairs.
Böhm holds a clear opinion about individuals who staunchly adhere to their beliefs without being open to counter-reasoning: “On the whole, you could say that if you are defending your opinions, you are not serious. Likewise, if you are trying to avoid something unpleasant inside of yourself, that is also not being serious. A great deal of our whole life is not serious. And society teaches you that.” (DBOD) Böhm also adds: “The ability to perceive or think differently is more important than the knowledge gained.” (DBWIO) and “science itself is demanding a new, non-fragmentary world view.” (DBWIO)
Therefore, the philosopher A. Huxley, the biologist R Sheldrake and Böhm as a quantum-physicist were students or discussion-partners of the Vedic philosopher Krishnamurti. They engaged in frequent contemplations and discussions about the nature of consciousness. Later, Böhm authored his influential paper on quantum physics, titled "Wholeness and the Implicate Order." Some of Böhm's quantumphysicist colleagues playfully teased him about his philosophy book, jestingly wondering, "It contains nice philosophies, but where is the physics in it?" However, they may not have fully grasped the profound understanding Böhm had attained. The philosophical aspect, which involves understanding and articulating what we observe in the quantum world, holds far greater significance than mere numbers and functions. It is akin to recognizing the forms displayed on the TV screen rather than providing people with an electric circuit diagram that explains how it works. Böhm skillfully offered both perspectives, which playfully earned him teasing from his colleagues.
Similar to the teachings of Hinduism, Böhm acknowledged the existence of a "Universal Order" while delving into the realm of quantum physics. He arrived at the same profound realization as the ancient Delphi oracles, understanding that true comprehension of this order comes from introspection and looking "within ourselves." Here is how he puts it: “[T]here is a universal flux that cannot be defined explicitly but which can be known only implicitly, as indicated by the explicitly definable forms and shapes, some stable and some unstable, that can be abstracted from the universal flux. In this flow, mind and matter are not separate substances. Rather, they are different aspects of our whole and unbroken movement.” (DBWIO)
Böhm suggests that the flux of reality is influenced by our focused awareness. The real world we experience and manifest aligns with our profound inner tendencies, which reside within us. He refers to this interconnectedness as the "implicate order," representing a profound sense of meaning underlying the dynamic flow of the universe.
The source of this sense or meaning, according to Böhm, lies in the interplay between the implicate and explicate orders. He uses the term "explicate" to describe the appearances we experience as external to us. Böhm believes that both the inner world of consciousness and the external world are real and interconnected, influenced by our minds.
In Böhm's view, our body and the universe are manifestations of "frozen light," and objects, including our bodies, are not solid particles in spacetime but rather "spherical standing waves in space." Light and matter are two sides of the same coin, as demonstrated by the double slit experiment. Photons, waves, or light are natural qualities that emerge from space and only manifest as matter when conscious awareness is involved. It is our attention and consciousness that seemingly freeze them into our experience, not a transformation from light to matter. It is not the world that is changing but our consciousness – which manifests this world as a magical dream within its conscious experience -. Or, as expressed in the movie titled Martix I., ”Do not try and bend the spoon, that's impossible. Instead, only try to realize the truth...there is no spoon. Then you will see it is not the spoon that bends, it is only yourself.” According to Böhm, our true nature is that of a wave potential that manifests itself through attention. The external "world outside" is merely an illusion and lacks true materiality. Instead, the reality comprises space, luminous light-waves, and awareness engaging in a boundless, spontaneous interplay. Within this self-contained experience, consciousness plays and explores its own limitless possibilities.
In this interplay of space, light-waves, and consciousness, emerges energy: “If one computes the amount of energy that would be in one cubic centimeter of space, with this shortest possible wavelength, it turns out to be very far beyond the total energy of all the matter known in the universe.” (DBWIO). No wonder, that the state of enlightenment is often described as an experience filled with unbounded joy. This sentiment is exemplified in the story of Shakyamuni, the latest Buddha of our times, who achieved this heightened state through deep meditation, commonly known as enlightenment. As his consciousness expanded, an immense surge of energy coursed through his body, causing his limbs to tremble in response to the powerful influx. To adapt and manage this newfound energy, he dedicated two weeks to training his body with various exercises, including jumping and other movements. This body-training happened just a few dozen meters away from the bodhi tree in Bodh Gaya, the very place where his enlightenment had occurred. Today, a smaller stupa stands in commemoration of that momentous event, next to the great MahaBodhi stupa. Following his intensive training, Shakyamuni's movements transformed into a harmonious flow, captivating to those who witnessed them. In trying to convey the magnitude of enlightenment, there is a saying that captures the essence of the experience. It suggests that someone who has tapped into the full potential of the mind, even as much as in the tip of their little finger, will experience a level of joy surpassing that of a loving couple in the height of their intimate union. Space is full of energy or the waves of joy.
In summary, the absolute nature of the mind serves as the source of everything—space itself and the boundless joy that arises within it. Böhm describes it in the following way: “The Metaphysics of Space and Motion and the Wave Structure of Matter is founded on One Principle which describes One Substance, Space, and its Properties as a Wave-Medium.” The space-nature of mind allows for the emergence of "everything," as it is often described as continuously pregnant with potentiality. When we hold the view that all appearances are present within space itself, we come to understand that they inherently possess a space-like quality, akin to a child carrying the genes of its mother. Consequently, when two siblings, born of the same mother, look at each other, it is as if the mother's genetic expression is observing itself through the gaze of her children. If everything is born in space and there is more space within our atoms than matter, then, actually following the previous example, space would be looking to itself through the eyes of the children.
This means, that the perspective of totality allows for different viewpoints, yet all perspectives are interconnected. Whether it's the perspective of two children or the perspective of a mother, they both arise from the same space-nature of mind that can manifest anything. The subject, object, and the action of viewing are inseparable components of this totality, existing within the same space. When we look at others or the world, our mind is essentially looking at itself. This is akin to the ocean manifesting countless waves, all sharing the same essence of water.
Thus, space gets aware of its own luminosity. Böhm puts it like this: “relativity and quantum theory agree, in that they both imply the need to look on the world as an undivided whole, in which all parts of the universe, including the observer and his instruments, merge and unite in one totality” (DBWIO) and “both observer and observed are merging and interpenetrating aspects of one whole reality, which is indivisible and unanalysable.” Böhm's description resembles that of a Mahamudra or Dzogchen teacher, who explains the unity and inseparability of the so-called "three spheres."
it is often easier to discuss concepts in a dualistic manner, such as inner and outer, or me and you. Our language and traditional thought patterns are more accustomed to handling this framework. The idea of everything happening in the mind, as posited by absolute reasoning, may appear too abstract or distinct for our everyday thinking to naturally accept it. While understanding and experiencing it might initially seem distant, gradual practice allows us to approach it and eventually find ease in it. For now, let us shift back one gear, from gear five to gear four, and view reality from that perspective.
In the realm of truths, multiple levels exist, and we can engage with the one that aligns with our capacity for comprehension. If we find it challenging to perceive ourselves primarily as light or illusory wave-potentials, altering our experience only within our minds, we may as well say, that this reality does not only happen as a movie in our minds, but it happens „outside there”. Hence, we revert to the dualistic viewpoint, allowing us to explore and discuss it nonetheless.
Therefore, we can simplify the understanding of the world's reality, which we commonly perceive as matter, by acknowledging that it arises from the energy and movement of light (with Einstein’s equation: E=mc² and vice versa, m=E/c², where ”E” is energy, ”m” is the temporary mass, and ”c” is the ever-changing speed of light). In a scientific context, this shift leads us from embracing the all-encompassing movement-manifestation of the light of the absolute (c=√(E/m)) to the realm of relative manifestations (E=mc²). The light of the absolute means that even in the purest vacuum, photons spontaneously emerge, moving at the speed of light. Consequently, the same equation demonstrates how the movement arising from absolute space manifests into matter and conversely, how matter can dissolve into space. The missing parameter, however, lies in the perspective of awareness, where m=E/c² occurs when focused consciousness is present and c=√(E/m) when it is absent. Einstein's expertise lay in physics, yet quantum physics proved to be an entirely different realm where he had limited understanding.
Thus, the nature of our body, like all beings and objects in our world, is akin to a holographic energy pattern or form that relies on the presence of consciousness. We are part of the universal hologram, just like deep oceanic streams are part of the vast ocean. “The essential feature in quantum interconnectedness is that the whole universe is enfolded in everything, and that each thing is enfolded in the whole.” - as Böhm expresses it. For this reason, we carry all the "vibration-samples" or "patterns" of the universe within us, just as we contribute to the universe with our individual patterns. Thus, all potential qualities present in the universe exist as seeds within us, waiting to unfold. However, our consciousness narrows down the vastness of the whole into manageable packages for us. It receives and filters frequencies from various dimensions, some beyond our imagination. From another viewpoint we may say, that we can only manifest only those tendencies that are already ripen in our subconscious.
At the same time, while our mind has the potential to manifest multiple realities and experiences, it operates within the confines of our relative consciousness, allowing us to perceive and experience one reality at a time. From the perspective of our individual consciousness, it is akin to being a wave on the vast ocean. In this view, only the particular wave we are in seems real to us, while the other waves are perceived merely as sensory impressions. Our consciousness, like a wave, moves through various experiences, revealing one reality at a time while other possibilities remain latent in the vast expanse of the ocean of consciousness.
Our sensual perceptions and reactions shaped by our subconscious mind, play a pivotal role in how our brain constructs and imagines the world we experience. Within this framework, the holographic light of consciousness manifests as the tangible experience of matter, whether it is perceived as being inside or outside ourselves.
Böhm puts it like this: „Intelligence and material process have thus a single origin, which is ultimately the unknown totality of universal flux. In a certain sense, this implies that what have been commonly called mind and matter are abstractions from the universal flux, and that both are to be regarded as different and relatively autonomous orders within the one whole movement...” (DBWIO). Thus, Böhm states that consciousness and matter have the same source, and that this perspective highlights that it is the element of movement, or flux, arising from space that serves as the wellspring of matter. As we passively delve in the manifestation of the relative world thinking that everything is solid, stable and unchanging, it is crucial to bear in mind its inherent relativity, implying that its appearance is an active process of movement triggered by consciousness. This dynamic interplay of movement leads to what we perceive as time, encapsulating the ever-changing nature of our reality. Böhm further states - “Ultimately, all moments are really one, therefore now is an eternity.” (DBWIO). Böhm continues - “One must then go on to a consideration of time as a projection of multidimensional reality into a sequence of moments.”
In essence, movement originates from the changeless and eternal absolute space. This eternal quality can be referred to as "eternality," serving as the steadfast anchor amidst the ever-changing realm of the relative. The space of the mind remains stable, while everything else undergoes constant change.
J.J.C. Smart (-2012), the British-Australian philosopher, shared many points of agreement with Böhm. He also believed that the passage of time is an illusion, and the universe is four-dimensional, where space-time manifests, and the relative "three times" (past, present, and future) are continuously and parallelly present in it.
As space-awareness contains space-time, akin to a Kinder egg with a gift inside, the process of manifestation unfolds. This unfolding occurs in accordance with the principle of dependent origination, which we have explored in this chapter. With the words of Böhm: “Buddhist philosophy, notion of mutually dependent origination, everything originates together, mutually dependent. It is close to implicate order, which says that everything comes out of a good and everything is interrelated, and that underlying it there is no substance that can be defined. that also give rise to karma, but karma too becomes changeable since even our own state of mind is part of the whole, and when it changes, the whole changes, so the karma changes.” (DBOC)
From this, it is evident that in addition to his deep engagement with quantum physics, Böhm found early inspiration in Krishnamurti's Advaita philosophy, which influenced his perspective on the universe. Later on, he turned to the teachings of Buddhism to further enrich his understanding of non-duality. Böhm must have also liked the advice Siddharta gave before he passed away. As Siddharta said: ”Don’t believe a single word just because it is said by a buddha. Verify it yourself”, ”If science proves me wrong, follow science”, ”be your own guiding light”.
Thus, when discussing the realtive, the main thing one has to deal with is movement, the direction of the movement and the energy of the movement. These three aspects are represented by a vector. In mathematics and physics, it is a basis to understand vectors. As D.R. Finkelstein (-2016) said, ”Learning to speak and think this vector-based language is the first task of the student who wishes to understand quantum physics.” Therefore, understanding vectors results understanding of vectors and counter-vectors, cause and effect, the vector-behaviour of karma as well. The point we push space, it pushes back with the similar vibration.
Indeed, many quantum physicists, including C. King from Auckland University, share Böhm's viewpoint. In his paper "The Central Enigma of Consciousness" (CCCEC), King proposes that the objective physical world and subjective conscious awareness are complementary descriptions of the same phenomena. He arrives at this conclusion by examining the transactional interpretation of quantum physics.
King's understanding is based on the concept of virtual particles traveling back and forth in time, existing within probability waves. In quantum physics, probability refers to the limited predictability of the position, time, and effects of particles or events. Quantum physics reveals an intriguing phenomenon where negatively charged particles moving forward in time are indistinguishable from their positively charged counterparts moving backward in time. This concept also applies to photons, which act as both particles and their own antiparticles. In the context of our three-dimensional world, space-time serves as the fourth dimension encompassing the three-dimensional reality. However, it's essential to note that light is not dependent or limited by space and time; for the sake of practicality when contemplating the mind, we can consider light as the essence of the fourth dimension. Light becomes a unifying element, present in both the 4D and 3D realms. With the mind exhibiting 4D qualities through various manifestations, it can be likened to the clarity of light.
Simultaneously, spacetime (4D) exists boundlessly in both space and time – concepts we typically associate with the 3D world. Spacetime encompasses both dimensions, and time is merely the motion of the 3D flux, capable of being experienced in both forward and backward directions, depending on where our awareness shines its light. When we liberate ourselves from conventional habits and preconceived notions, and refrain from clinging to pleasant experiences, our awareness can naturally gain profound insights, regardless of the direction we explore in time. On customary occasions, the 16th Karmapa would inform his followers that certain individuals had recently left their homes and would be coming to his monastery for specific purposes. He would then provide instructions to his followers to guide and assist these individuals upon their arrival.
Spontaneous perception occurs when the mind becomes aware of unfolding events. Additionally, the mind has the ability to infuse energy into its movement through intention. As a result, one can purposefully extend awareness to derive information about something from the vast expanse of space.
With these two methods of intuitive information gathering, we've explored how the mind becomes aware of unfolding events and can infuse energy through intention. However, to truly influence the course of history and upcoming actions, we must recognize that the mind has the power to do so through strong wishes. Just like energizing a timeless radio-transmitter, these wishes can transform virtual photons into real photons, affecting the past, present, and future.
By directing our attention with potent wishes, we can wield influence based on the strength of our intention, our understanding of the space-nature of the mind, and the external conditions surrounding the situation. Regularly making positive wishes is akin to a swift series of kung-fu punches to the same spot, their effects accumulating over time.
Now, let us join together in making a wish for the benefit of countless beings, that each may find their true path to happiness, non-dual wisdom, and reach the ultimate result through diligent practice.
By collectively making this wish, we have already contributed positively to the world, and our paths may cross again in the future to continue this virtuous practice.
Setting a daily alarm at 12:08 GMT (London time) to make this short wish can be highly beneficial for both the dear Readers and their countries. The power of consistent positive intentions can ripple out and create profound changes in our lives and the world around us. By dedicating a moment each day to such a meaningful aspiration, we align ourselves with the greater good and cultivate a harmonious and compassionate world.
Quantum entanglement serves as an example and physical explanation of how intuition operates. When an atom transitions to its ground state, emitting two photons, they travel in opposite directions with complementary polarizations. Remarkably, neither photon has a definite polarization until we measure one of them. As soon as we direct our conscious attention to one photon, it acquires a certain polarity, while simultaneously, the other photon, even if located miles away, takes the opposite polarity. Since both photons emerged and are contained within space, the state triggered in one instantly affects the other, irrespective of the spatial distance between them. This phenomenon explains why some individuals can sense when they are being thought of by someone else. The strength of this intuitive connection depends on our familiarity with those individuals or our understanding of the space-nature of our own minds.
Through this intuitive interconnectedness, we tap into a vast realm of information that transcends traditional notions of time and space. By deepening our understanding of this process, we can cultivate a more profound and harmonious relationship with the world around us.
In the quantum world, what unfolds is the true essence of reality. It surpasses the illusory flux of experiences we encounter in our daily lives. When we glance at our watches to tell the time, we are merely observing the external mechanical aspects of the watch, while the true essence of time lies within the intricate electronic processes governed and described by quantum physics.
Indeed, quantum physics unveils the profound interconnection between mind and reality. Within the realm of dependent origination, molecules come together to form the structures of bodies, worlds, and universes, but this is merely a mechanical expression of the spontaneous and continual self-creation or self-manifestation of space. In this way, the quantum reality becomes a profound window into the nature of existence, where the dance of consciousness and space gives rise to the vast tapestry of the universe.
King puts it like this: ”the existential realm is a complementarity between subjective consciousness and the objective physical universe, of a founding cosmological nature”. (CCCEC)
King emphasizes the dual nature of reality, comprising two essential aspects: space and appearance. The former is akin to the space-like, nurturing, and feminine quality, likened to the ovum, while the latter embodies appearance, forms, and dynamic action, resembling the male or father aspect, similar to the sperm. When these two aspects merge harmoniously, they engage in a seamless dance, creating a new "wave," a fresh vibration, a shared vector, giving rise to a new life, a baby, a novel form.
Drawing from the concept of tantra, meaning "inseparably woven together," King points to the profound interconnectedness of these aspects. Still, there are three levels or meanings of tantra.
The first meaning of tantra, known as the outer meaning, pertains to the physical unity of a yogi and a yogini engaged in a conscious practice. During this union, they focus on distinct energies and syllables, known as Karmamudra. It is important to note that only highly realized yogis possess the ability to master their inner energies, as ordinary individuals may become easily overwhelmed by the sensual sensations and inner joy that arise from such practices.
The second meaning of tantra, referred to as the inner meaning, involves the harmonious unification of female and male energies. This synergy generates a profound result that surpasses the mere sum of their individual contributions. The emitted or manifested energy becomes significantly greater and more conscious than the combined energies and awareness of the individual components.
The third meaning of tantra, known as the secret meaning, transcends the previous two interpretations like a profound revelation compared to mere Disneyland games. It occurs when the mind's female-like space-nature and the appearances caused by the movement of dynamic male action, unite and reach their pinnacle—the orgasmic moment. In that extraordinary instance, all notions of duality dissolve, and the couple experiences something beyond the realm of relative consciousness. Space expands, and in an indescribable instant, duality dissolves. This non-dual unity experienced by awareness is the secret meaning. The energy-nature of space reaches such heights that this bliss, openness, and awareness transcend the control of the illusory ego, leading one to fall into the liberating freedom of boundless awareness and joy. The brain freezes, akin to a temporary blue screen on a computer. This experience, reveals the true essence of the mind, surpassing any encounter within relative consciousness. Understanding that the space and appearance aspects form an inseparable whole, like two sides of a coin, leads to the awareness of this third component resulting from their unity. It's like a triangle where two corners imply the presence of the third. This concept also resembles a three-legged chair or a three-bladed dagger, symbolic of overcoming rigid ideas. Regardless of which two corners we focus on, the presence of the third becomes evident.
These three factors are:
These three factors are as follows:
(1) The boundless 3D space is perpetually creative, giving rise to spontaneous appearances, while also interpenetrating these manifestations. This leads us to comprehend the playful nature or clarity-nature of space.
(2) These appearances interact and, after a certain duration, dissolve back into space. This allows us to grasp the space-nature of phenomena.
(3) Mind, akin to 4D space-time awareness, experiences and manifests it all. Ultimately, we can deduce that every 3D occurrence unfolds within the 4D nature of the mind. This leads to our intellectual understanding of the non-dual awareness-nature of mind and overall, the nature of reality.
The relationship between the observer and the universe is such that both arise within space and are shaped by awareness. From the perspective of all-penetrating space, the subject, object, and the action between them are interconnected like two sides and a corner of the same illusory void coin. Although we believe we perceive the world, we actually imagine everything, falling into the illusion of separation between self and other. In this way, we collectively create our imaginary reality, constantly defining, naming, and labeling things and ourselves.
When we intellectually understand this process and its elements, yet struggle to let go of the idea of the existing self, it's like falling into an abyss of space, desperately trying to hold onto roots or bushes on the rock-wall we are descending next to. We cling to concepts out of fear of what will happen if there is no "me." However, the good news is that no one loses "anything." By relaxing into the space-nature of mind, one actually gains "everything." It's like turning up the light in a dark room—we suddenly know what and where everything is, and we understand why it is as it is. When the dark shade of the "me" falls away, it leads to great gain, great joy, great wisdom, benefiting everyone.
The Nonphysical Mind That Determines Our Bodies
Within the understanding that 4D can manifest countless 3D realities, F.A. Wolf (1934-) proposes that "the possibility waves neve r collapse." Instead, they merely add scenarios in the light of awareness. This implies that the boundless potential of the absolute mind remains "stable," while simultaneously, an infinite array of 3D contexts manifest based on the subconscious tendencies of consciousness. Just like the sun and clouds coexist in the sky, the absolute mind doesn't "collapse into becoming clouds" when observed, but simply allows passing clouds to appear and disappear. The absolute mind never transforms into relative consciousness but remains ever-present behind it. Therefore, regardless of how many bodies we inhabit, our mind remains constant, transcending the flux of 3D phenomena.
While our consciousness exhibits semi-physical attributes, entwining with subconscious magnetoelectric tendencies and the physical brain, the mind itself transcends the limitations of 3D reality and is, therefore, nonphysical. Actually, more accurate way to express it is that the mind can manifest itself as both physical and non-physical, at its discretion, as the physical aspect emerges within the realm of the non-physical.
M Rowlands (1962-), the Welsh philosopher from the University of Miami, stands at the forefront of our times, proposing that the mind is nonphysical. It does not reside in a specific part of the brain, possessing neither extension, size, nor weight. Instead, it resembles space in its nature. Rowland puts it like this: "Cognitive processes are not located exclusively inside the skin of cognizing organisms"; ”... mind is not, exclusively, inside the head" (RRCHEC). His idea finds agreement with D.J. Chalmers and A. Clark (1957-) as well. Clark further contends that it is the relative consciousness that temporarily resides in a body. "The intelligent process just is the spatially and temporally extended one which zig-zags between brain, body, and world.”(RRCHEC). L. Saphiro, the philosopher from the University of Wisconsin-Madison, arrives at the same conclusion, albeit from the body's perspective: "mind is a program that can be characterized in abstraction from the kind of body/brain that realizes it" and "minds profoundly reflect the bodies in which they are contained." (MRNSM)
According to his perspective, our thoughts, words, and actions have a direct influence on our bodies. In other words, the choices we make in our thoughts and behaviors play a role in shaping the condition and well-being of our physical bodies.
Though the mentioned philosophers do not distinct clearly between the terms of ”relative consciosness” and ”absolute mind”, they express with their own words, that relative consciousness resides in the body, while mind does not merely resides there, but is like space in which a body appears, and thus, the mind penetrates the body as well.
In our historical analysis of the past 5,000 to 6,000 years of human philosophy, we observe a fluctuation between periods of freedom and flourishing philosophical thought, and times when dogma prevailed over reason and facts. Throughout this journey, humanity faced a crucial choice between dogma and the freedom of opinion, belief, and science.
Remarkably, we find that Western and Eastern philosophy are not separate entities; instead, Western philosophy draws inspiration from the concealed mother's-breast-milk of Eastern thought. With the advent of quantum science, our understanding of reality underwent a profound transformation, validating many tenets of Eastern thought. While some Western philosophers are yet to fully embrace these insights, we owe gratitude to those who have embraced the wisdom of the East and found alignment with quantum physics. Today, facts and freedom are harmoniously intertwined, elevating the conscious awareness of humanity and benefiting all beings in the universe.
As awareness expands, intuition naturally flourishes as a by-product. Openness and recognition lead us to be kind to others, for we understand that being kind to others is akin to being kind to ourselves. Facts and freedom converge, paving the way for a more enlightened and compassionate society.
In this chapter, we provided a historical framework by exploring the thoughts of philosophers from different ages. As we move forward to the next chapter, we will embark on a journey through the major topics of philosophy and explore the diverse perspectives of various philosophers on these subjects. By doing so, we will construct a comprehensive "cross" of history and the main themes that have shaped philosophical discourse. Thus, our mental pathways will interconnect and we find ourselves equally at home discussing the history of philosophy and exploring its multifaceted subjects.
Throughout our exploration, we will come to recognize that intuition is not confined to historical context alone; it also permeates the very heart of these philosophical topics.
As we progress through the second chapter, we will attain a profound understanding that enables us to proudly identify as self-educated folk-philosophers. We will develop expertise in the philosophy of mind and consciousness, religious philosophy, quantum philosophy, and, above all, the philosophy of intuition.
Szilárd Fodor-Josephson, phd hc
seal [at] happines-consulting.com, happiness-consulting.com
1. cikk: Bevezető, összefoglaló
2. cikk: Intuíció, közgazdász szemmel
3. cikk: Az intuíció fizikája
4. cikk: Az intuíció biológiája
5. cikk: Intuíció a szociológiában
6. cikk: Intuíció a filozófiában I. | Angol Cikk
7. cikk: Intuíció a filozófiában II. | Angol Cikk
8. cikk: Intuíció a filozófiában III. | Angol Cikk
9. cikk: Intuíció a pszichológiában
Books quoted from
IKCPR Immanuel Kant: Critique of Pure Reason (Edited & Translated by Paul Guyer and Allen W. Wood), Cambridge Press 1998
WFPP William Fish: Philosophy of Perception - A Contemporary Introduction, Taylor & Francis 2010
DDQQ Daniel C. Dennett: Quining Qualia
RPCFD Richard M. Pico: Consciousness in Four Dimensions – Biological Relativity of the Origins of Thought, McGraw-Hill 2002
ECRRI Elijah Chudnoff: The Rational Roles of Intuition https://philpapers.org/archive/CHUTRR.pdf
JKPSPM Joshua Knobe: Person as Scientist, Person as Moralist https://cpb-us-w2.wpmucdn.com/campuspress.yale.edu/dist/3/1454/files/2016/02/person-as-moralist-21no6a9.pdf
NHQR Nick Herbert: Quantum Reality BEYOND THE NEW PHYSICS
FCTP Fritjof Capra: The Tao of Physics, An Exploration of the Parallels Between Modern Physics and Eastern Mysticism
DRFQR David Ritz Finkelstein: Quantum Relativity, A Synthesis of the Ideas of Einstein and Heisenberg
TCAT Timothy Chan: Introduction, Aiming at Truth
GBDMA George Berkeley: De Motu And The Analyst
GBPHNTD George Berkeley: Principles Of Human Knowledge And Three Dialogues
FNBGE Friedrich Nietzsche: Beyond Good and Evil
FNTSZ Friedrich Nietzsche: Thus Spoke Zarathustra, A Book for All and None (Edited by Robert Pippin and Adrian Del Caro)
DLWY Dan Lusthaus: What is and isn't Yogācāra http://www.acmuller.net/yogacara/articles/intro.html
NSSR Nagarjuna: SIXTY STANZAS OF REASONING https://www.tibetanclassics.org/html-assets/SixtyStanzas.pdf
DLWY Dan Lusthaus: What is and isn't Yogacara
VTVAC Vasubandhu: Twenty Verses with Auto-Commentary
SRPKI Stephen R. Palmquist (Editor): Kant on Intuition: Western and Asian Perspectives on Transcendental Idealism consists
WTSMP Walter Terence Stace: Mysticism and Philosophy
AJKVST Andrew Janiak: Kant’s Views on Space and Time
DHUREK Dieter Henrich: The Unity of Reason, Essays on Kant
EMCCWS Curley, Edwin M. (1985). The Collected Works of Spinoza
JWHKB JUSTIN WHITAKER: Happiness, Kant, and Buddhism https://www.patheos.com/blogs/americanbuddhist/2013/06/happiness-kant-and-buddhism.html
KMCSEIKB Koya Matsuo: A Comparative Study of the Epistemology of Immanuel Kant and that of Buddhism
KHCSS Kenneth Hutton: Compassion in Schopenhauer and Santideva http://blogs.dickinson.edu/buddhistethics/files/2014/12/Hutton-Schopenhauer.pdf
NGLGIPK Nectarios G. Limnatis: German Idealism and the Problem of Knowledge
SSRKC Sally Sedgwick: The Reception of Kant's Critical Philosophy
BRHWP Bertrand Russell: History of Western philosophy
DRID Dave Robinson: Introducing Descartes: A Graphic Guide
WJTPP William James: The Principles of Psychology
DTSSBN D.T. Suzuki: Swedenborg: Buddha Of The North
ESSAEH Emanuel Swedenborg, Secret Agent on Earth and in Heaven
JJRE Jean-Jacques Rousseau: Emile
KHCSS Kenneth Hutton: Compassion in Schopenhauer and Śāntideva (University of Glasgow)
JMBHFCWH James Millan and Brooks Haxon: Fragments – The Collected Wisdom of Heraclitus
JDEC John Dewey: "The Ego as Cause" Philosophical Review, 3, 337–41 (1894)
HLHP Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel: Lectures on the History of Philosophy
PBBISE (DK books) Buckingham, Burnham, Hill, King, Marenbon, Weeks: The Philosophy Book: Big Ideas Simply Explained
FCBFR Frederick C. Beiser: The Fate of Reason - German Philosophy from Kant to Fichte
ASWWR Arthur Schopenhauer, The World As Will And Representation
PMCERSS Paul M. Churchland, The Engine of Reason, The Seat of the Soul
PMCMC Paul M. Churchland, Matter and Consciousness
DJCCMS David J. Chalmers, The conscious mind in search
CCCEC Prof. Chris King, The Central Enigma of Consciousness
FAWOECCTC Fred Alan Wolf, Ontology, Epistemology, Consciousness, and Closed Timelike Curves
MRNSM Mark Rowlands, The New Science of the Mind: From Extended Mind to Embodied Phenomenology
RMEM Richard Menary, The Extended Mind, New Edition
RRCHEC Rob Rupert, Challenges to the Hypothesis of Extended Cognition
DJCIMBP David J. Chalmers, Idealism and the Mind-Body Problem
DJCPM David J. Chalmers, Philosophy of Mind
DJCCC David J. Chalmers, The Character of Consciousness
DJCCCR David J. Chalmers, Philosophy of Mind: Classical and Contemporary Readings
DWSMW D. W. Smith, Mind World (2004)
KMCSEIKB Koya Matsuo, A Comparative Study of the Epistemology of Immanuel Kant and that of Buddhism
EHBPP Edmund Husserl, Ingo Farin, J.G. Hart: The Basic Problems Of Phenomenology
MMPVI Maurice Merleau-Ponty, The Visible and the Invisible
MMPPP Maurice Merleau-Ponty, Taylor Carman, Donald Land, Phenomenology of Perception
GWBLC G. William Barnard, Living Consciousness -The Metaphysical Vision of Henri Bergson
JPSBN Jean Paul Sartre, Being and Nothingness
HBMM Henri Bergson, Matter and Memory
MAABTIF Miri Albahari, Analytical Buddhism - The Two-Tiered Illusion of Self
MHBT Martin Heidegger, Being and Time
LJJWPI Ludwig Josef Johann Wittgenstein, Philosophical Investigations
DBWIO David Böhm, Wholeness and the Implicate Order
DBOD David Böhm, On Dialogue
DBOC David Böhm, On Creativity
MDPPB Maitreyas Distinguishing Phenomena from Pure Being With the Commentary by Mipham, Snow Lion Publications
JMRGNIII JamgönMipham rinpoche, Gateway to Knowledge Vol. III. – The Gate for Entering the Way of a Pandita, Ranjung Yeshe, 2002 [KIBI University Textbook]
LONTGS Lama Ole Nydahl: The Great Seal: Limitless Space & Joy: The Mahamudra View of Diamond Way Buddhism, Pelican Pond Publishing; Illustrated edition (October 17, 2011)
DLPTI David Lewis, Psychophysical and Theoretical Identifications
MFAJL Michael Fuchs, The Art Of Jedi Leadership – empower your ultimate purpose, Haufe, 2016
Most well known philosophers of the East and West
// in the order of the end of their life-work
Abraham (2123 BC)
Zoroaster/ Zarathustra (1500 BC – 1000 BC)
Shakyamuni (Gautama) Buddha (6th to 5th century BC)
Lao-Tze (Laozi, "old master") (unknown 6th-4th century BC)
Bodhidharma (5th century BC)
Thales of Miletus (c. 624 – c. 546 BCE)
Anaximander (c. 610 – c. 546 BC)
Anaximenes of Miletus (c. 586 – c. 526 BC)
Xenophanes (570-475 BC)
Pythagoras of Samos (c. 570 – c. 495 BC)
Confucius (‘Master Kǒng‘) (28 September 551 – 479 BC)
Heraclitus of Ephesus (535 – 475 BC)
Anaxagoras (510 – 428 BC)
Parmenides of Elea (late sixth or early fifth century BC)
Cratylus (c. 500 – 400 B.C.)
Protagoras (490 – 420 BC)
Gorgias (483 – 375 BC)
Socrates (470 – 399 BC)
Democritus (c. 460 – c. 370 BC)
Aristippus of Cyrene (c. 435 – c. 356 BC)
Anniceris (l. 300 BC)
Plato (427 – 347 BC)
Diogenes Laërtius (412 - 404 BC – 323 BC)
Aristotle (384 – 322 BC)
Alexander (The Great) III of Macedon (20/21 July 356 BC – 10/11 June 323 BC)
Anaxarchus (Alexander's companion)
Onesicritus (Alexander's companion)
Theodorus the Atheist (c. 340 – c. 250 BC)
Phyrrho of Elis (360 – 270 BC) (Alexander's companion)
Epicurus (341–270 BC)
King Ashoka (c. 304–232 BC)
Zeno of Citium (c. 334 – c. 262 BC)
Hegesias of Cyrene (-290 BC)
Marcus Tullius Cicero (3 January 106 BC – 7 December 43 BC)
Jesus Christ (c. 4 BC (not from 0)– c. AD 30/ 33)
Lucius Annaeus Seneca the Younger (c. 4 BC – AD 65),
Ptolemy (c. 90 – c. 168)
Emperor Marcus Aurelius (26 April 121 – 17 March 180)
DyonNagarjuna (150 – 250)
Sextus Empiricus (c. 160 – 210)
Plotinus (c. 204/5 - 270)
St. Augustine of Hippo (13 November 354 – 28 August 430)
Vasubandhu (4th – 5th century)
Pseudo-Dionysius the Areopagite (late 5th to early 6th century)
Padmasambhava (8th century)
Saraha (orig. Rāhulbhadra) (8th century)
Adi Shankaracharya (8th century)
St. Bernard of Clairvaux (1090 – 20 August 1153)
St. Dominic (Spanish: Santo Domingo) (8 August 1170 – 6 August 1221)
Francis of Assisi (born Giovanni di Pietro di Bernardone) (1181 or 1182 – 3 October 1226)
Thomas Aquinas Thomas of Aquino (1225 – 7 March 1274)
Karma Pakshi, 2. Karmapa (1204 – 1283)
Roger Bacon (c. 1214 – ca. 1294)
John Duns, Duns Scouts (c. 1266 – 8 November 1308)
[Maister] Eckhart von Hochheim O.P. (c. 1260 – c. 1328)
William of Occam (c. 1287 – 1347)
Niccolò di Bernardo dei Machiavelli (3 May 1469 – 21 June 1527)
Erasmus (28 October 1466 – 12 July 1536)
Sir Thomas More (7 February 1478 – 6 July 1535)
Copernicus (19 February 1473 – 24 May 1543)
Martin Luther (10 November 1483 – 18 February 1546)
Ignatius of Loyola (c. 23 October 1491 – 31 July 1556)
John Calvin (10 July 1509 – 27 May 1564)
Francis Bacon, 1st Viscount St Alban (22 January 1561 – 9 April 1626)
Johannes Kepler (27 December 1571 – 15 November 1630)
Galileo di Vincenzo Bonaulti de Galilei (15 February 1564 – 8 January 1642)
Thomas Hobbes of Malmesbury (5 April 1588 – 4 December 1679)
René Descartes (Latinized: Renatus Cartesius; adjectival form: Cartesian) 31 March 1596 – 11 February 1650)
Blaise Pascal (19 June 1623 – 19 August 1662)
John Locke (29 August 1632 – 28 October 1704)
Baruch Spinoza (born Benedito de Espinosa, later Benedict(us) de Spinoza) (24 November 1632 – 21 February 1677)
Pierre Bayle (18 November 1647 – 28 December 1706)
Nicolas Malebranche (6 August 1638 – 13 October 1715)
Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz (1 July 1646 – November 14, 1716)
Sir Isaac Newton (25 December 1642 - 20 March 1726/27)
George Berkeley (12 March 1685 – 14 January 1753)
Christian Freiherr von Wolff (24 January 1679 – 9 April 1754)
Emanuel Swedenborg (8 February 1688 – 29 March 1772)
David Hume (7 May 1711 – 25 August 1776)
Jean-Jacques Rousseau (28 June 1712 – 2 July 1778)
Georg Philipp Friedrich Freiherr von Hardenberg [Novalis] (2 May 1772 – 25 March 1801)
Immanuel Kant (22 April 1724 – 12 February 1804)
Johann Christoph Friedrich (von) Schiller (10 November 1759 – 9 May 1805)
Johann Gottlieb Fichte (19 May 1762 – 27 January 1814)
Friedrich Heinrich Jacobi (25 January 1743 – 10 March 1819)
Percy Bysshe Shelley (4 August 1792 – 8 July 1822)
George Gordon Byron, 6th Baron Byron (22 January 1788 – 19 April 1824)
Jean-Baptiste Pierre Antoine de Monet, chevalier de Lamarck (1 August 1744 – 18 December 1829)
Johann Adam Weishaupt (6 February 1748 – 18 November 1830)
Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (27 August 1770 – 14 November 1831)
Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (28 August 1749 – 22 March 1832)
Jeremy Bentham (15 February 1748– 6 June 1832)
William Godwin (3 March 1756 – 7 April 1836)
Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling (27 January 1775 – 20 August 1854)
Søren Aabye Kierkegaard (5 May 1813 – 11 November 1855)
Arthur Schopenhauer (22 February 1788 – 21 September 1860)
Ludwig Andreas von Feuerbach (28 July 1804 – 13 September 1872)
Thomas Carlyle (4 December 1795 – 5 February 1881)
Charles Robert Darwin (12 February 1809 – 19 April 1882)
Karl Marx (5 May 1818 – 14 March 1883)
Henry Sidgwick (31 May 1838 – 28 August 1900)
Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (15 October 1844 – 25 August 1900)
William James (January 11, 1842 – August 26, 1910)
Charles Sanders Peirce (September 10, 1839 – April 19, 1914)
Ernst Waldfried Josef Wenzel Mach (18 February 1838 – 19 February 1916)
Franz Clemens Honoratus Hermann Josef Brentano (16 January 1838 – 17 March 1917)
Gottlob Ernst Schulze (23 August 1761 – 14 January 1833)
Edmund Gustav Albrecht Husserl (8 April 1859 – 27 April 1938)
Henri-Louis Bergson (18 October 1859 – 4 January 1941)
Giovanni Gentile (30 May 1875 – 15 April 1944)
John Dewey (October 20, 1859 – June 1, 1952)
Isidore Marie Auguste François Xavier Comte (19 January 1798 – 5 September 1857)
Sigmund Freud (6 May 1856 – 23 September 1939)
Bertrand Arthur William Russell, 3rd Earl Russell (18 May 1872 – 2 February 1970)
Walter Terence Stace (17 November 1886 – 2 August 1967)
John Stuart Mill (20 May 1806 – 7 May 1873)
Alexius Meinong Ritter von Handschuchsheim (17 July 1853 – 27 November 1920)
Francis Herbert Bradley (30 January 1846 – 18 September 1924)
Rudolf Joseph Lorenz Steiner (27 (or 25) February 1861 – 30 March 1925)
Max Ferdinand Scheler (German: [ˈʃeːlɐ]; 22 August 1874 – 19 May 1928)
Carl Gustav Jung (26 July 1875 – 6 June 1961)
Theodor W. Adorno (Theodor Ludwig Wiesengrund; 11 September 1903 – 6 August 1969)
Martin Heidegger (26 September 1889 – 26 May 1976)
Gilbert Ryle (19 August 1900 – 6 October 1976)
Jean-Paul Charles Aymard Sartre (21 June 1905 – 15 April 1980)
Maurice Jean Jacques Merleau-Ponty (14 March 1908 – 3 May 1961)
8th Garchen Triptrul Rinpoche (born 1936)
Lama Ole Nydahl (born 19 March 1941)
Clinton Richard Dawkins (born 26 March 1941)
Alfred North Whitehead (15 February 1861 – 30 December 1947)
Nick Herbert (born 7 April 1963)
Don Edward Beck (January 1, 1937 - May 24, 2022)
Kenneth Earl Wilber (born January 31, 1949)
Sri Aurobindo (15 August 1872 – 5 December 1950)
George Edward Moore (4 November 1873 – 24 October 1958)
Daniel W. Smith (born October 26, 1958)
17th Karmapa, Trinley Thaye Dorje (born 6 May 1983)
Clare W. Graves (December 21, 1914 – January 3, 1986)
Donald MacCrimmon MacKay (9 August 1922 – 6 February 1987)
Wilfrid Stalker Sellars (May 20, 1912 – July 2, 1989)
Gilles Deleuze (18 January 1925 – 4 November 1995)
Jacques Derrida (15 July 1930 – 9 October 2004)
Susan Blackmore (29 July 1951 – )
Michael Fuchs (24 September 1966 – )
Samuel Benjamin Harris (9 April 9, 1967 – )
Seal, Szilard Fodor-Josephson (1 September 1976 – )
14th Künzig Shamar Rinpoche, Mipham Chökyi Lodrö (27 October 1952 – 11 June 2014)
David Ritz Finkelstein (19 July 1929 – 24 January 2016)
Galambos Péter (Sándor) (19 January 1971 – 12 December 2019)
Judith Jarvis Thomson (October 4, 1929 – November 20, 2020)